NASM Chapter 15 Flashcards Preview

NASM Chapter 15 -- Intro to Exercise Modalities > NASM Chapter 15 > Flashcards

Flashcards in NASM Chapter 15 Deck (26):

Strength Training Machines

inferior to free weights for improving core stability & neuromuscular efficiency (proper movement patterns) b/c machines offer artificial support vs. the core musculature


Strength Training Machine progression

Strive to move client from strength-training machines to more proprioceptively enriched environments


Pros of Strength Training Machines

Can be used in all OPT phases
-May be less intimidating
-Can emphasize certain muscle groups for rehab or bodybuilding
-Various intensities (load) provided in one weight stack
-Does NOT require a spotter
-Provides extra support for special-needs clients
-Keeps client in fixed plane of motion, which may limit excessive ranges of motion


Cons of Strength Training Machines

-Many machines don't allow the user to perform total body exercises
-Moves primarily in one plane of motion
-Does little to provide challenge to the core-stabilization system
-May NOT be ideal for improving athletic performance
-Do NOT fit all body types (short, tall, obese may have hard time adjusting machines)
-Expensive in comparison to other strength-training modalities


Pros Free Weights

-Effective in all OPT phases
-Can be used to emphasize certain muscle groups, or target multiple muscle groups
-Can improve athletic performance
-Can challenge core stabilization
-May improve dynamic joint stabilization & proprioception
-Allows individuals to move in multiple planes of motion


Cons Free Weights

-May require spotter
-May be too difficult for beginning clients to perform until exercise technique is mastered
-Requires multiple dumbbells/barbells to change intensity /load
-Potentially more dangerous
-Intimidating for certain individuals


Spotting Techniques

-Determine how many reps client will do before beginning set
-Never take away weight from client unless client is in immediate danger of dropping or losing control of weight. (Provide enough assistance for client to successfully complete the lift through "sticking point”)
-Spot at wrists
-NEVER spot machine-based exercise by placing your hands underneath weight stack


Cable Machines

-Effective in all OPT phases
Align the line of the cable with the line of pull of the muscle being worked


Elastic Resistance (Rubber tubing & bands)

Phases 1,2,5
-Inexpensive alternative to training w/ resistance.
-Improves proprioceptive demands, muscular endurance & joint stabilization
-May NOT be ideal for Hypertrophy or Max. Strength b/c heavy loads are required to overload musculoskeletal system


Medicine Balls

-One of the oldest means of resistance training dating back to Greek & Egyptians 3000 years ago
-VERY useful modality b/c it allows movements to occur as explosively as possible w/o the need for eccentric deceleration


Kettle Bell Training

Phases 1,2,5
-First used as a unit of measurement on market & farming scales, later used in the Russian military for conditioning & strength
-Giyra: Russian for kettle bell
-Differs from a dumbbell, barbell, or medicine ball in that the center of mass is away from the handle


"Four Horsemen Of Fitness"

-Medicine Ball -Indian Club -Dumbbell -Wand


Kettle Bell Benefits

-Enhanced athleticism, coordination, & balance
-Increased mental focus & physical stamina
-Increased oxygen uptake
-Increased total body conditioning as opposed to isolation training
-Recruitment of the POSTERIOR chain (calves, hamstrings complex, glutes, spinal erectors)
-INCREASED core stability & muscular endurance
-INCREASED strength & power
-Improved grip strength
-Increased metabolic demands & caloric expenditure


Kettle Bell Kinetic Chain Checkpoints

-Feet: approx. shoulders-width apart & pointing straight ahead
-Knees: in line w/ the second & third toes (avoid valgus or varus motions)
-Hips: level w/ lumbar spine in a neutral position
-Shoulders: depressed & slightly retracted to activate scapulae stabilizers
-Head: cervical spine in a neutral position (chin tuck)


Body Weight Training

-Do not require additional load (dumbbells. barbells or strength training machines)
-Common Exercises: push-ups, pull-ups, body weight squats, sit-ups
-Often used for core, balance & plyo training


Closed Chain Training

Hands or feet in a constant fixed position & force applied by the individual in NOT great enough to overcome the resistance (such as ground or immovable object)
Examples: push-ups, pull-ups, & squats


Suspension Body-Weight Training

Use in stabilization & endurance phases
-Increase muscle activation
-Low compressive loads to spine
-Increased performance
-Potential increase in caloric expenditure
-Improvements in cardiovascular fitness


Open Chain Exercises

Movements in which hands or feet are not in a fixed position & the force applied by the body is great enough to overcome the resistance (such as dumbbells or barbells)
Examples: bench press, lat pull-down, machine leg extension


Stability Ball

-Use to increase demand for stability and strength in core musculature
-Can be dangerous if one doesn't possess good balance or control
-Evaluate risk vs. reward for the client & follow safety guidelines


Stability Ball Proper Use

-Only use in open area away from exercise machines or other equipment
-Keep ball away from direct heat sources like prolonged sun exposure, heaters, fireplaces
-First timers, trainer may need to hold ball for added stability
-Children should only use w/ proper adult supervision
-Maintain proper posture (5 kinetic checkpoints) during all exercises


SB Improper Use

-Do not exceed suggested weight capacity
-Do not wear sharp objects that could puncture ball
-Do not stand on SB
-NOT recommended during maximal lifts using heavy loads (need stable surface for heavy lifting)


BOSU Balls

Offers ability to increase intensity of exercise by decreasing stability. Can use in Phases 1, 2 & 5.
Phase 1: BOSU Overhead Shoulder Press, push-ups
Phase 2: Superset a leg press w/ BOSU ball squat
Phase 5: Bench Press w/ BOSU plyo push-ups


Vibration Training aka Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) benefits

- Improved circulation and cardiovascular function
- alleviation of muscle soreness
- weight reduction and increased metabolism
- increased bone density
- increased flexibility and range of motion
- improved overall well-being


Vibration Training

-Platform generates vertical sinusoidal vibrations (smooth repetitive oscillation) that stimulate muscle contractions that are comparable to the tonic vibration reflex
-The manipulation of frequency creates acceleration similar to g-force in which body is stimulated to increase strength as a result of higher g-force, w/o the additional loads being place in the musculoskeletal system


Proper progression (stable >> unstable)

floor, sport beam, 1/2 foam roller, foam pad, balance disc, wobble board, BOSU



The cumulative sensory input of the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense position & limb movements.