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Flashcards in Natural Selection Deck (20):
1

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses

2

Nucleotide

Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid, both of which are essential biomolecules in all life-forms on Earth

3

Chargaff’s Rules

Chargaff's rules state that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio (base Pair Rule) of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to thymine

4

Watson and Crick

The discovery in 1953 of the double helix, the twisted-ladder structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), by James Watson and Francis Crick marked a milestone in the history of science and gave rise to modern molecular biology

5

Rosalind Franklin

Rosalind Elsie Franklin was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal, and graphite

6

Mutations

In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements

7

Adaptation

something produced by adapting: an adaptation of a play for television. 4. Biology. any alteration in the structure or function of an organism or any of its parts that results from natural selection and by which the organism becomes better fitted to survive and multiply in its environment

8

Species

a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding. The species is the principal natural taxonomic unit, ranking below a genus and denoted by a Latin binomial

9

Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations

10

Fossils

A fossil is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or microbes, hair, petrified wood, oil, coal, and DNA remnants

11

Fossil Record

fossil record definition. A term used by paleontologiststo refer to the total number of fossils that have been discovered, as well as to the information derived from them

12

Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, FRS FRGS FLS FZS was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution

13

Trait

In biology, a trait or character is a feature of an organism. The term phenotype is sometimes used as a synonym for trait in common use, but strictly speaking, does not indicate the trait, but the state of that trait

14

Selective Breeding

Selective breeding is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females

15

Natural Selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype. It is a key mechanism of evolution, the change in heritable traits of a population over time

16

Generation Time

In population biology and demography, the generation time is the average time between two consecutive generations in the lineages of a population. In human populations, the generation time typically ranges from 22 to 32 years

17

Speciation

Speciation is the evolutionary process by which biological populations evolve to become distinct species

18

Primates

A primate is a mammal of the order Primates. In taxonomy, primates include two distinct lineages, strepsirrhines and haplorhines

19

Hominid

The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera

20

Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the binomial nomenclature for the only known extant human species. Homo is the human genus, which also includes Neanderthals and many other extinct species of hominin; H. sapiens is the only surviving species of the genus Homo