NBME - Peds Flashcards Preview

2 Pediatrics > NBME - Peds > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBME - Peds Deck (46):
1

Male Tanner Stage 2. Age, description.

Age = 8 - 11.5
- Pubic hair appears
- Testicular enlargement

2

Male Tanner Stage 3. Age, description.

Age = 11.5 - 13
- Coarsening of pubic hair
- Increase in penis length

3

Male Tanner Stage 4. Age, description.

Age = 13 - 15
- Coarse hair across pubis sparing thigh
- Increase in penis width

4

Male Tanner Stage 5. Age, description.

Age = 15+
- Coarse hair across pubis and thigh
- Adult size penis and testes

5

Female Tanner Stage 2. Age, description.

Age = 8 - 11.5
- Pubic hair appears
- Breast buds form

6

Female Tanner Stage 3. Age, description.

Age = 11.5 - 13
- Coarsening of pubic hair
- Breast enlarges
- Mound forms

7

Female Tanner Stage 4. Age, description.

Age = 13 - 15
- Coarse hair across pubis sparing thigh
- Raised breast areola
- Mound on mound

8

Female Tanner Stage 5. Age, description.

Age = 15+
- Coarse hair across pubis and thigh
- Adult breast size
- Areola flattens

9

What causes prolonged QT in a neonate born from a gestational diabetic?

Hypocalcemia

10

Cause for altered mental status in DKA.

Cerebral edema

11

Most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in male newborn.

Posterior urethral valves

12

What is this murmur: Murmur disappear when the child is in the supine position and when the neck is rotated in the sitting position.

Venous hum (benign)

13

Bronchiolitis vs Brionchiectasis

Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, most commonly caused by RSV.
Bronchiectasis is permanent dilation of bronchi due to recurrent cycles of infection. Most commonly caused by Cystic Fibrosis and COPD.

14

Delivery Guidelines if pregnant woman has HIV depending on HIV viral load

If HIV viral load <1000 then vaginal delivery

If HIV viral load > 1000 before 38 wks then:
C-sec at 38 wks
Zidovudine (AZT) intrapartum (3 hrs before delivery)

15

What should newborn receive if mother has HIV, depending on pregnant woman's HIV viral load.

Within 6-12 hrs of delivery
If HIV viral load <1000 then Zidovudine (AZT)
If HIV viral load >1000 then 3-drug ART (zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine)

16

Pediatric Patient has joint swelling and positive antinuclear antibody. Dx? Next step?

Dx = Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Next step = When ANA is positive you must do Slit-lamp exam at diagnosis and every 3-4 months to check for Uveitis

17

What to feed newborn that develops cow milk or soy allergy?

A protein-hydrolysate based formula
(e.g. formula with hydrolyzed caesin)

18

Patient with hyperpigmentation and hypotension. Dx? Diagnostic test?

Dx = Addison's (primary adrenal insufficiency)
Diagnostic test = Measure plasma cortisol level

19

Classical triad of symptoms of Hereditary Spherocytosis (HS). AND what is a well-known complication of HS? What is the treatment?

Triad = Coombs negative hemolytic anemia, jaundice, splenomegaly
Complication = Chelelithiasis (pigmented gallstones)
Tx = Splenectomy after age 6

20

Rash on ankles and bilateral ankle edema in a pediatric patient. Dx?

Henoch-Schonlein purpura

21

3 Symptoms of Reactive Arthritis

Assymetric Arthropathy
Nongonococcal urethritis/cervicitis
Inflammatory eye disease

22

Treatment for ingestion of alkili agent (e.g. batteries, drain cleaner, detergent)

Milk or water immediately (not effective after 30 min)
Then NPO to prevent esophageal erosion

23

Physostigmine is an antidote for what?

Anticholinergic toxicity

24

What is the antidote for organophosphate poisoning?

Atropine and Pralidoxime

25

Antidote for arsenic toxicity?

Dimercaprol and Gastric Lavage

26

Antidote for salicylate (aspiring) poisoning

Alkalize the urine with sodium bicarbonate

27

Antidote for benzodiazepine overdose

Flumazenil

28

Antidote for beta blocker overdose

Glucagon, Saline, Atropine

29

Antidote for Carbon Monoxide poisoning

100% oxygen OR hyperbaric oxygen

30

Antidote for Mercury Toxicity

One of the following
Dimercaptosuccinic acid (preferred)
Dimercaprol
Succimer

31

Antidote for cyanoide poisoning

Sodium Thiosulfate
Hydroxycobalamin (B12)

32

Antidote for isoniazid toxicity

Pyridoxine (B6)

33

Antidotes for lead toxicity

EDTA
Penicillamine
Dimercaprol
Succimer

34

Antidote for TCA toxicity

Sodium bicarbonate (favors a non-ionized form of TCA, so it can't bind to cardiac sodium channels)

35

Treatment of Kawasaki Disease

Intravenous immune globulin (reduces the risk of coronary artery aneurysms)
Aspirin (reduces the risk of coronary thrombosis due to aspirin's antiplatelet affect)

36

How to differentiate between Meckel's Diverticulum and Intussusception

Meckel's = Painless GI bleed
Intussusception = Painful GI bleed and sausage-like mass can be felt in abdomen.

37

Midline mass with calcifications in pediatric patient. Dx?

Neuroblastoma

38

When to give Meningococcus vaccine.

Once at age 11

39

When to give TdaP vaccine

Every 10 year
or every 5 years if someone has had a wound

40

When to give HPV vaccine?

Ideally before sexually active (age 11-12) = 3 doses over 6 mo.

Given to women through age 26, Men through age 21

41

3 Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency

Hypotension
Hyperkalemia
Hyperpigmentation

42

Recent upper respiratory infection. Now on auscultation physician finds an S3 gallop. Dx?

Myocarditis

43

Scoliosis and brown spots on skin. Dx?

Neurofibromatosis

44

Other than short stature, what other symptoms are associated with Turner's syndrome?

Lymphedema of hand and feet
Horseshoe kidney
Impaired hearing
Cardiovascular malformation
Webbed neck
Wide-spaced nipples

45

Define Hypertensive emergency AND what drugs are used to treat.

Hypertensive emergency = BP > 180/120 and end-organ damange (e.g. seizure, retinal hemorrhage, kidney injury)
Tx = Nitroprusside or Fenoldopam

46

Wilm's tumor is associated with ______

Denys-Drash Syndrome = Mn*WAGR = Wilm's tumor, aniridia (no iris), ginitourinary abnormalities, intellectual disability)
AND
Beckwith-Wiedeman Syndrome = Wilms tumor, macroglossia, organomegaly, hemihyperplasia