nct4 v2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in nct4 v2 Deck (500):
1

Random electron activity in the atoms that make up the conductor

Thermal Noise

2

Noise floor in a 4MHz bandwidth @ 68*F is called:

Termination Noise

3

Difference in a peak carrier level to the noise floor:

Carrier to Noise

4

Amount of noise in a 4MHz bandwidth on a 75 Ohm cable @ 68*F

-59.16dB

5

FCC Spec for C/N

43dB

6

Undesired change in the waveform of a signal

distorion

7

Crossing of Modulation from one channel to another

XMOD or Cross Modulation

8

XMOD appears as

Vertical bars in the picture

9

2nd harmonics of any 2 channels are typically _____ below the sum/difference products

6dB

10

CTB products fall within _____ of the video carrier

30 KHz

11

Tilting the output of an amplifier improves:

Distortion performance

12

CSO beats fall @ __________ above the video carrier

1.25MHz +/- 15 KHz

13

unwanted sum/difference frequencies resulting from heterodyning of 2 or more signals

Beats

14

A horizontal bar in the picture is _______ Modulation

Hum

15

Primary cause of Hum (60Hz)

Power Passing Choke (60Hz)

16

A source of hum in older systems (120Hz)

Series regulated DC Power supplies (120Hz)

17

3 parts of fiber

Coating, Cladding, Core

18

When light stays in the core, this is called

Total Internal Reflection

19

2 wavelengths used in HFC Networks

1550nm & 1310nm

20

Most common type of fiber used in the cable industry

Single Mode Fiber

21

Wavelength is ________ proportional to frequency

Inversely

22

A shorter wavelength means a _______ Frequency

Higher

23

Compares the speed of refracted light in a material to the speed of light in a vacuum

Index of Refraction

24

One Billionth of a meter

nanometer

25

Device that takes the RF and modulates it onto an optical wavelength

Optical Transmitter

26

Optical transmitters use this type of diode

Laser Diode

27

What device detects light and demodulates it to RF

Optical Receiver

28

An optical receiver uses this type of Diode

Photo Diode

29

C/N Formula

L1-(NF-59.2)

30

Formula for C/N @ end of cascade

C/N1-10logN (C/N1 is equal to the C/N of a single amplifier in the cascade, N=Number of amplifiers)

31

XMOD Formula

XMOD1 - 20logN

32

CTB Formula

CTB1 - 20logN

33

Devices that are used to compensate for the forward and return loss

Amplifiers

34

What device compensates for the uneven cable loss in coax?

Equalizer

35

Amplifier input EQs are selected to do what?

Provide flat inputs to the first stage of amplification

36

amplifier interstage EQs are selected to do what?

Provide output tilt

37

Forwards trunk amplifiers are selected for their what?

Low Noise Figure (NF)

38

What compensates for fluctuations in the input signal?

AGC

39

The name of the frequency that is monitored by the AGC

Pilot

40

It provides a means to monitor levels with out interrupting service

Test Point

41

This device has substantial isolation between it's output & tap port:

Directional Coupler (DC)

42

What device has both a DC & Splitter built into it?

Tap

43

What device is considered to be the customer interface point?

Tap

44

This device compensates for reverse tilt on the feeder

In-Line EQ

45

This device has a diplex filter & a pad that will only affect the return

In-Line Conditioner

46

This device uses a low pass filter to prevent RF from entering the Power Supply

Line Power Inserter (LPI

47

This map only shows the poles & Strand

Strand Map

48

This map is the point where actives are added to the network

Design Map

49

This map shows the network changes from the original design as the design needed to be modified when it was being built

As-Built

50

This map shows only one Node

HFC Plant Map

51

The numbering system used to catalog plant maps is called:

Map Grid System

52

CLI

Cumulative Leakage Index

53

Leaks _____ and greater are included in the CLI calculation

50uV/m

54

CLI is performed how often?

annually

55

What form is used to submit CLI to the FCC?

320

56

Leakage monitoring must be performed how often?

Every 90 days

57

During Leakage monitoring, leaks _____ and greater must be logged and repaired

20uV/m

58

Leakage logs must be kept on file for how many years?

2

59

Signal levels that are ________ or higher must be offset

38.75dBmV

60

A method used to pin point a leak

Triangulation

61

FCC requires that measurements are made with a ______ antenna

Dipole (1/2 Wave Pole)

62

CTB falls within ______ of the video carrier

30KHz (all channels EXCEPT 5 & 6)

63

AM

Amplitude Modulation

64

PM

Phase Modulation

65

FM

Frequency Modulation

66

Modulation used for Video

Amplitude Modulation

67

Modulation used for Color

Phase Modulation

68

Modulation used for Audio

Frequency Modulation

69

The video carrier is ______ higher than the lower edge of the channel

1.25 MHz

70

The color carrier is ________ from the video carrier

3.58 MHz (4.83MHz from lower edge of channel)

71

The audio carrier is _________ from the video carrier

4.5 MHz

72

CSO fall ________ above the video carrier

1.25MHz +/- 15KHz

73

CTB are within _______ of the video carrier

30KHz

74

The speed at which a wavefront passes through a medium, relative to the speed of light.

Velocity of Prorogation

75

The difference in voltage between one point and another is called

Potential Difference

76

Substance that allows heat or electricity to pass along or through it is called

A Conductor

77

The difference of an electrical field in radiated wave is

Polarity

78

Subatomic particles found in atoms that balance out the positive charge of a proton (within the nucleus) with their negative charge

Electrons

79

An electrical current, of which the polarity is periodically reversed

Alternating Current

80

Frequency Divided by the speed of light =

Wavelength

81

_____ is the amount of time it takes an AC waveform to complete one cycle

Period

82

The peak value of an AC waveform is also known as its

amplitude

83

1 complete sine wave =

Cycle

84

number of an AC waveform that occur in 1 second

Frequency

85

Ohms Law

E=IxR

86

R=

the resistance in Ohms

87

E=

The electromotive force (EMF) in volts

88

I=

The current in Amperes

89

A design philosophy where the loss of the cable and other passive devices before an amplifier station equal the gain of the amplifier

Unity Gain

90

A representation of the networks response to a sweep signal and the effects of all the network components such as cable, connectors, passive devices, and the signatures added by the amplifiers

Sweep Response

91

The difference in cable attenuation or amplifier gain between lower and higher Frequencies on the network

Tilt

92

The difference in gain between the ends of a band of frequencies

Slope

93

A gradual or sharp attenuation of gain (versus Frequency) at either or both ends of the spectrum

Roll-off

94

a sharp reduction in the amplitude of a narrow band of frequencies within the networks overall response

Suck out

95

an active device used to increase the level of an input signal. Used in a cable system to compensate for the effect of attenuation caused by coaxial cable and passive devices

Amplifier

96

Small plug-in device used to attenuate signals to the correct operating levels

Pad

97

A device used to reduce signal strength

Attenuator

98

In a cable amplifier it is typically a small, plug in device used to compensate for the fact that coaxial cable attenuation varies as the square root of frequency

Equalizer

99

The effect a particular type of amplifier has on the overall frequency response

Signatures

100

the difference between in amplitude between the most positive (Peak) and the most negative (Valley) levels of a electrical signal

Peak to Valley

101

Outline or multiple images of the primary TV picture offset to either side

Ghost

102

Caused by direct pickup (off air signal getting into the cable system)

Leading Ghost

103

An oscillator controlled so that it maintains a constant phase angle relative to a reference signal source

Phase Locked

104

Usually caused by signal reflection

Following Ghost

105

The unwanted sum and/or difference frequencies resulting from heterodyning (mixing) of two or more signals

Beat

106

A method of reception using an RF current of the proper magnitude and phase relation so the received voltage is if the same nature as the original wave

Zero Beat

107

caused in one channel by the same carrier from another transmitter operating on the same channel

Co Channel interference

108

chemical change caused by a reaction to Oxygen such as rust

Oxidation

109

A theoretical temperature equivalent to the absolute absence of heat equal to - 273.15 degrees C or -459.67 degrees F

Absolute Zero

110

Noise added to the response due to a lack of or improper termination

Termination Noise

111

A frequency selective receiver capable of tuning in a desired frequency/Channel with a display showing RF signal strength (dBmV)

Signal Level Meter (SLM)

112

The minimum signal level at the input to the customers TV is

0dBmV to 15dBmV

113

what do you need to do to maintain an SLM

Keep the battery charged, clean the battery terminals regularly,keep the SLM clean by wiping it gently:dry the display screen to prevent spots, do not use any type of polish or cleaner on the display ,and a regular calibration should be made and logged,

114

The ratio of error power to average power in an ideal QAM signal is

MER

115

Average power =

Digital power

116

Peak Power=

Analog power

117

Optical power units

mW or dBm

118

RF power units

mV or dBmV

119

Attenuation/ gain units

dB

120

what mode monitors up to 12 chs at a time on your meter

Miniscan

121

what mode monitors the entire Ch plan on your meter

Full scan

122

what mode check s the forward low frequency and high frequency channel tilt

Tilt mode

123

Detects errored bits in the system

Bit error Rate (BER)

124

used for troubleshooting connections with intermittent bit errors occuring over a period of time

Errored Seconds

125

passage of an outside signal into the cable; can result in noise and disruption of the desired signal

Ingress

126

shows impairments on the networks with the patterns on display and can be identified by figuring out the patters

Constellation Graph

127

Displays intermittent short duration impairments missed by MER and BER on your meter.

Digital quality index (DQI) mode

128

this mode shows you if ingress is within the downstream digital spectrum without turning of service

QAM ingress mode

129

This mode greatly improves the success rate and efficiency in locating return-path ingress

Fieldview Option

130

Service quality depends on transmitting signals with the highest carrier to composite noise and the lowest intermodulation distortion. The majority of all transmission errors can be detected by measuring the frequency response of the network is

Sweep

131

Provides a quick method to check cable system integrity, using active channels to sweep the forward path is

Sweepless Sweep

132

Using a unique method to accurately reveal any problem in the system without interfering with any of the analog/ Digital carriers is

Forward Sweep

133

Helps find mismatches or other problems in the upstream transmission path

Reverse Sweep

134

Accurately measures Ac voltages of signals other than pure analog sine waves

Root Mean Square Meter (RMS)

135

This meter is used to measure AC and DC voltages and currents as well as resistance and has a digital display

Digital Multi meter (DMM)

136

is used to find the location/path of underground cables

Cable locator

137

has a transmitter and receiver. it could include the following components a test lead, inductive frame and A-frame.

A locator

138

The resistance of a circuit to alternating current.

Impedance

139

The condition that results when two components of a system are operating at different impedance

Impedance Mismatch

140

is used to determine the distance of a known fault from a specific location

Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR)

141

Is used to locate: bad or unknown splices, opens, shorts, and kinked cable.

TDR

142

A reflection with the same polarity indicates an

open

143

is a situation where the center conductor comes in contact with the shield

Dead Short

144

A reflection with the opposite polarity indicates that the fault is

Short

145

refer to a cable that has not been competely cut

Partial Open

146

The contact between the center conductor and the shield is not complete

Partial Short

147

The distance that cannot be seen by the TDR because its too close to the TDR source

Deadzone

148

two types of TDRs

Waveform and Digital

149

extremely thin flexible thread of pure cladded glass able to carry millions of times the information of a traditional copper wire and do it over greater distances

Optical Fiber

150

A device that generates a light source used in fiber communication

Laser

151

LASER

Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission Radiation

152

Most light generated by lasers for telecomm use exists in the infrared band of 1310nm and 1550nm wavelengths

Infrared Light

153

the distance between two points of like phase in a wave

Wavelength

154

A card made up of material similar to photographic film that changes colors when exposed to light

Photosensitive Card

155

Laser Classification

Class1-safe as long as they are not disassembled.; Class-2/2A Eye hazard if beam is viewed.;Class-3A Eye hazard if collected or focused on the eye.; Class3B Eye hazard if the direct or reflected beam is viewed.; Class4 eye and skin hazard.

156

what is the laser standard

ANSI Z-136

157

A method to lock and mark one end of a line in order to allow someone to safely work on the other end

Lockout Tag-out

158

what are the two methods of fiber cleaning

Wet and Dry

159

Materials needed for wet method

Lint free wipes, Isopropyl(better than 90%) as recommended by the manufacturer, and lint free swabs or urethane foam heads

160

rotate a cleaning cloth over the end of a fiber connector by pushing down toward the connector

Push Pen

161

A battery or generator that provides electrical power to the circuit. For example, batteries and generators

Power Source

162

A conductor such as copper wire

Path

163

the device that uses the electricity. it is any device that draws current

Load

164

Substance that allows heat or electricity to pass along or through it

Conductor

165

Subatomic particles found in atoms that balance out the positive charge of a proton with their negative charge

Electrons

166

is the electromotive force that causes electrons to flow in a circuit

Voltage (E)

167

The pressure that causes electrons to flow in a circuit

Electromotive Force

168

is the flow of electrons through a conductor. is measured in amperes and is designated mathematically in ohms law as the letter I

Current (I)

169

The amount of electrons that pass a given point in the conductor in one second

Coulomb

170

is the opposition a material offers offers to the flow of current

Resistance (R)

171

the difference in voltage between one point and another

Potential Difference

172

the direction of an electrical field in a radiated wave

Polarity

173

An electrical current of which the polarity is periodically reversed.

Alternating Current (AC)

174

the point at which the filament reaches a temperature that causes it to glow

incandescence

175

the relationship between current or voltage and elapsed time

AC Waveform

176

what are the 4 types of AC Waveforms

Sine Wave, Square Wave, Quasi-square wave, and Sawtooth Wave

177

this waveform represents the characteristics of the voltage/current that feeds homes, powers power supplies, and the television channels that carry the program information to your customers homes

Sine Wave

178

This waveform is often found within the switching regular DC output power supplies in Amplifiers

Square Wave

179

A CATV power supply without a load produces a near square wave that combines a non linear increase and decrease of voltage or current with extended maximum positive and negative peak value.

Quasi Square Wave

180

Types of signals carried on the HFC system

Modulated RF carriers, Modulated analog carriers, DC power and AC power

181

one complete sine wave is

Cycle

182

Number of cycles of an AC waveform that occur in one second

frequency

183

the speed of the light/Frequency=

Wavelength

184

the amount of time it takes a waveform to complete one cycle

Period(T)

185

peak value of a waveform

Amplitude

186

states that current is directly proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance

Ohms Law

187

R=

The resistance in ohms

188

E=

the Electromotive force(EMF) in volts

189

the rate a which work is done or the rate at which energy is used

Power

190

I=

current in Amperes

191

Resistance is measured between the center conductor and sheath with the other end

DC Loop Resistance

192

P=

WAtts

193

Current at any point in the line in the HFC plant is equal to the sum of the individual Ampere current draws of the active devices being fed from that point.

AC Current in the Broadband Network

194

the amount of voltage loss over the span is referred to as

Voltage drop

195

At lower voltages the current is higher in the HFC plant

Current at lower voltages

196

the amount of energy available to move a certain number of electrons from one point to another in an electrical circuit

Voltage

197

to be subjected to the action of an electrical discharge

Shock

198

to kill by electrical shock

Electrocute

199

a connection to the earth or a grounding device

Ground

200

power supplies reduce the secondary power (120 or 240) to the 60 or 90VAC for insertion in the cable

Line power supply

201

the electricity provided by the local power company

commercial power

202

2 types of line power supplies

standby and non standby

203

reduction of voltage by a transformer

stepped down

204

conversion of voltage, in this case from 36 or 38VDC to 60 or 90VAC

Inverted

205

the point where AC power from the power supply is placed on the coax portion of the distribution network.

Power inserter

206

a filter that will only allow the higher RF frequency signals to pass directly from RF port to port

high pass filter (relating to power inserter)

207

a filter present on each leg to direct the flow of the lower frequency AC power, which prevents the RF Signal from traveling into the power supply and causing signal leakage

Low Pass filter(Relating to power Inserter)

208

the two types of network powering

Distributed and centralized powering

209

batteries produce what kind of gas during charging operations

Hydrogen

210

three methods for testing batteries

battery load test, battery voltage test, battery conductance test

211

the most accurate and reliable test involves testing the batteries under a load condition

Load Test

212

the difference between any batteries in the set should not be greater than

0.3VDC

213

measuring the impedance of the battery with a conductance meter and documenting that value when its new. Batteries less than 50% of their as new conductance values are known to be bad

Battery conductance test

214

means of testing the network remotely that saves numerous problems in respect to downtime and customer dissatisfaction

status monitoring

215

according to manufacturers the terminals should be torqued to_____and then retorqued to _____ during routine maintenance.

75inch lbs and 60 inch lbs

216

what points should be kept in mind while checking battery terminals

is there an in line fuse in the battery cable, check the fuse holder and fuse. make sure the terminals are properly greased with an approved corrosion inhibitor such as NCP-2 or NO-OX

217

the topology where signals originate in the headend and are transmitted long distances via trunk cables which have branches for directing the signal to customers

Tree and Branch

218

Forward signals originate at the headend are transmitted downstream by way of the trunk to the ends of the service.

Transportation (Trunk)

219

In a Tree and Branch system the feeder is considered what

The distribution System (Branches)

220

in a tree and branch system RG-6 and 11 is considered

The Drop(Leaves)

221

A network architecture developed by the cable industry which typically uses fiber optic cables to bring signals to selected areas of the system called Node Service Area, which are usually based on the number of subscribers to be served

Hybrid Fiber Coax(HFC)

222

what are the two wavelengths of fiber do we use

1310 nm and 1550nm

223

a network architecture where nodes, hubs, or headends may be connected with fiber optic cables to provide redundancy or increase services.

Ring

224

What are the advantages of fiber

Greater Bandwith and can travel greater distances without Amplification

225

what are the two types of Fiber

Single mode and Multi mode(we use single mode)

226

what is the attenuation of single mode fiber

1310nm=.35dB/km, 1550=.25dB/km

227

the distance between two points of like phase in a wave

wavelength

228

compares the speed of light through a material to the speed of light through a vacuum

Index of Refraction

229

the reflection that occurs when light strikes an interface at an angle of incidence greater than the critical angle allowing it to be continually reflected from the interface between two materials with different refractive indices

Total Internal Reflection

230

Single mode core is how many microns

8 to 9 microns

231

single mode cladding is how many microns

125 microns

232

single mode coating is how many microns

250 microns

233

what is the primary loss in fiber called

Scattering

234

separates(and recombines) the forward and reverse signals from the coax cable so they can be routed to and from the appropriate components within the amplifier station

Diplex filter

235

separates or combines the AC currents two parts-( AC power and RF broadband signals)

Power Diplex

236

attenuates the signal in order to bring it to within the acceptable range of the amplifier

Pad

237

compensates for the unequal attenuation properties of the coaxial cable. usually selected to produce flat broadband signals to the input of the first stage of Amplification

Equalizer

238

Usually selected for low noise figure. Amplifies forward signal passing through the trunk and distribution lines

Forward Amplifier Module (TRUNK)

239

Used to compensate for fluctuations of the input signal

AGC

240

Similiar to an AGC maintains the proper tilt(caused by temperature change in a specified amount of coaxial cable) and output level despite changes in the input signals

ALS

241

Signal splitting device that plugs into a trunk/bridger chassis

directional plug ins (feedermaker)

242

Converts AC power(60V-90V Quasi Square wave) to DC power(typically 24VDC)needed to operate the stations modules and regulates the DC output voltages to provide a stable and constant output

DC Power Pack

243

used to direct AC power into and out of specific ports of the amplifier station

Power Director

244

provides a means of monitoring the various inputs and outputs without interrupting service

Test Points (TP)

245

will have substantial isolation between the output and tap ports if all ports see a good 75 ohm match. Isolation for signal paths between the tap and output port is usually 25dB or greater

Directional Coupler (DC)

246

A tap is used to extract a specific amount of signal from the feeder system and distribute it for connection of customer drops and contains a directional coupler that feeds a single splitter.

Taps (Customer interface point)

247

Low frequency signals are not attenuated as much as high frequency signals in a coaxial cable

In line Equalizers

248

LIke in line EQs these devices are sometimes installed in the distribution cable where low value taps are used

in line conditioners

249

in a housing like the splitter is used to introduce AC power into the network

Power Inserter

250

A design philosophy where the loss of the cable and other passive devices before an amplifier station

Unity Gain

251

similar to a street map and includes features like lakes and rivers, streets, and boundaries

Base Map

252

Displays streets with poles and pedestals locations and includes the span length or footage between these items

Strand Map

253

Shows the locations of electronic equipment. including headend and any hubs,amplifiers, power, supplies, and taps.

Design Map

254

Offer the layout of the system in a condensed form. shows how active devices are cascaded and how they are connected to the headend, hub, or node. power supplies are also noted

Amplifier schematics or Tree Map

255

A corrected map that represent the addition or changes in information on the design map

As Built map

256

Map that covers a single node

HFC Plant map

257

documents a fiber plant

fiber design map

258

catalogs the system maps

Map Grid System

259

is the measure of the cables ability to maintain impedance at all frequencies due to the many micro reflections introduced during manufacturing. The industry Specs call for a minimum of 15dB, but the higher the better

Structural Return Loss (SRL)

260

What do reflections do on a coaxial cable

They distort the carriers, causing bit errors in the modulated data streams.

261

a thin wire wrapped around the fiber and coaxial cables to secure them to the strand

Lashing wire

262

load bearing component of an aerial coaxial cable installation. Its usually a 1/4 or3/8 inch zinc coated steel wire to which the cable is lashed

Strand

263

A loop intentionally formed in the cable to compensate for the expansion and contraction caused by temperature changes

Expansion Loop

264

used to counteract the horizontal component of forces placed on poles by the strand and cable

Guy and Anchor

265

Strand that connects the pole line hardware to anchor

Guy

266

Buried metal device used to transfer force from the pole to ground

Anchor

267

strand that connects the pole line hardware, particularly the guy attachment hardware to the anchor.

Guy Wires

268

is a yellow plastic cover used to protect the guy wire and make it more visible

Guy Wire Guard

269

Different types of Guys

Down Guy, Head Guy, Terminal Guy, Side Guy, Pole to stub guy, pole to pole guy, sidewalk guy, and storm guy

270

Different types of anchors

screw anchor, never creep anchor, rock anchor, anchor rods(AKA Guy rods)

271

the device usually a screw used to connect the coax's center conductor to an active or passive device

Seizure Mechanism

272

is used to remove the outer jacket of a typical underground cable

stripping tool

273

may remove the jacket, but primarily removes the outer sheath and dielectric within the cable

Coring Tool

274

having a saw toothed edge or margin notched with tooth like projections

Serrated

275

these tools are specifically designed to cut coaxial cables

banana cutters

276

what are the two steps in building the aerial portion of the network

the strand system must be built and properly tensioned and the cable must be lashed onto the strand.

277

to wrap a thin wire around the cable in order to secure it to the strand.

Lashed

278

this device is selectively placed at pole hardware locations to prevent dangerous sag while strand is being installed

Strand Brake

279

used in conjunction with a lay up stick to lift cable blocks and strand

Wire raising tool

280

used to prevent unwanted payoff of strand from the cable trailer or reel stand

Reel Brakes

281

are portable bonding connections installed at the location where the strand is spooled from the cable trailer or reel stand. can be removed only after the strand is bonded to the grounding network

Traveling grounds

282

two types of strand methods

Stationary reel method and Moving reel method

283

installation of pole hardware allowing for hanging of strand

Framed

284

the trailer should be at a minimal distance (two times the hardware attachment height) from the pole at which the strand first contacts the pole line hardware

Stationary reel method

285

the strand is installed by mounting a reel to a vehicle and driving the vehicle from pole to pole stopping to install the strand and hardware at each location

Moving reel method

286

Strand splices should be placed outside the pole framing hardware, but within 18 to 24 inches of the pole . traveling grounds should always be used when placing the strand

Stationary reel method

287

uses a mechanical wrenching action to bend expansion loops into coaxial cable prior to lashing or during splicing

Mechanical Bender

288

used to measure the pulling tension applied to cables

Dynamometer

289

allows cables that are being pulled to swivel and are used to ensure that the cables are not over-tensioned during pulling

Breakaway swivel

290

used to support a single lashing may be used when cables are lashed directly to the strand or in overlash applications

Single roller Block

291

used to install self support cable and is attached to the pole hardware support the cable as it is pulled out

Pole Mount Cable Block

292

used to support a single cable prior to lashing

Economy Block

293

This device is used to route cables through inside or outside corners up to 90degrees. it minimizes drag on the cable in corners and ensures that the minimum bend radius of the cable, as specified by the manufacturer is not exceeded

90 degree corner block

294

used to route cables through inside or outside corners up to 45degrees. it minimizes drag on the cable in corners and ensures that the minimum bend radius of the cable is not exceeded

45 degree corner block

295

used to guide cables from the cable trailer or reel strand to the strand

Set up Chute

296

this bracket is used to support 45 and 90 degree corner block or setup chutes at the mid span

set up bracket

297

used to lash cable directly to installed strand or cable bundles

cable lasher

298

allows multiple cables to be pulled into place when lashing cable directly to strand

Multiple cable puller

299

allows multiple cables to be pulled into place in overlash applications

Overlash cable puller

300

device is used to push equipment ahead of a pulled lasher

Cable block pusher

301

pushed in front of a lasher by a cable block pusher to uniformly position multiple cables that are being lashed

Cable positioner (Magic Box)

302

is the tension caused by the mass of cable on the reel and reel brakes.

tail loading

303

what two methods control tail loading

can be minimized by using minimal braking during the payoff of the cable from the reel. and at times no braking is preferred.

304

If a span is _____ or longer place ____ expansion loops on each pole. one is placed on the input side and one is placed on the output side of the pole

250ft and 2

305

is when two perpendicular strands end at the same pole

Double dead end

306

the mechanical bender must remain in place until the lasher is transferred and the next span of cable is

lashed 50ft or 1/3 the distance to the next pole whichever is greater

307

An expansion loop should be formed on the ___ side of every pole for all sizes of coaxial cable being used

Output

308

When the loop location is dictated by the signal flow direction of the feeder cable

Feeder Dominant

309

the trailer should be positioned in line with the strand and twice the distance _____

of the set up chute to the ground from the chute (Stationary Reel method)

310

The cable should payofff the___

Top of the cable reel

311

Use a cable block lifter to place _____ on the strand every 30 to 50ft

cable blocks

312

the ends of the cable left at the pole for splicing

Cable Tail

313

it is essential that double lashing be used when___

two or more cables, all trunk cables, and at street crossings.

314

how many feet do you stop the lasher to form an expansion loop

6FT

315

is a connection to earth or a conductor serving earth potential and can be intentional or accidental

Ground

316

is the interconnection through good conductors of the cable plant with power and phone systems to eliminate potential voltage differences

Bond

317

is a pipe usually made of PVC and used to house cable and protect it from dirt, moisture, and outside forces.

conduit

318

is a protective covering for hardline cable, typically made from galvanized steel or plastic over the exposed cable where it makes the transition from aerial to underground.

Riser Guard

319

conduit for underground drops must be buried to a minimum depth of

8inches

320

installing all underground drops emerging from the ground must have physical protection (cable guard or conduit) to a point at least ________located at the house

4ft above ground or until reaching the service enclosure.

321

underground drop cables routed down a pole must have physical protection, cable guard, or conduit, to at least

8ft above ground and at least 8inches below ground

322

a high visibility tape usually used when burying fiber optic cable, buried directly above the cable point out the existence of the cable to anyone digging in that location

Warning Tape

323

bury warning tape above the cable at a depth of___ during the back fill process

12inches

324

Locate the midpoint of the pull. while monitoring pulling tension, pull the cable from the mid point to the end of one direction.(Used for installing long fiber runs)

Mid point cable pull

325

what u do with the remaining fiber optic cable

figure eighting

326

while doing the figure eights with fiber u set the cones up ____ apart

10-15 paces

327

the US government agency established in 1934 to regulate electronic communications

Federal Communications Commission(FCC)

328

In 1990, the FCC required that system perform s CLI test ____

Annually

329

a figure of merit derived mathematically from the number and severity of signal leaks in a cable system.

Cumulative Leakage Index

330

the figure of merit for CLI has to be

64 or less

331

your CLI test that you do annually has to be submitted using what form

FCC form 320

332

a system in which transported signals are completely contained within the medium is called

a closed system

333

Leakage is emitted RF energy and is called

Egress

334

Noise is received energy and is called

Ingress

335

what % of leakage is found between the tap and bonding block

70%

336

LTE

Long Term Evolution

337

LTE operates in the ____frequency range

700 to800 MHz

338

No more than 15 microvolts per meter @30 meters

0-54MHz

339

No more than 15 microvolts per meter @30 meters

More than 216MHz

340

No more than 20 microvolts @3 meters

54MHz and 216MHz

341

the aeronautical frequencies are

108-139MHz

342

two ways to do the CLI test

Ground based and flyover

343

Leakage monitoring must be done

Quarterly

344

Leakage logs must be kept on file for

2yrs

345

Only Leakages___ or greater are included in the CLI calculations

50 microvolts

346

CW

continuous wave

347

three methods to calibrate your leakage detector

Done by the manufacturer, Direct coupling, and Antenna

348

what method do you use to pinpoint a leak

Triangulation Method

349

a leakage log should include

Date;location;leakage cause;strength;distance to leak; Date;Strength after repair.

350

leaks__ or greater must be logged for regular monitoring

20 microvolts

351

the FCC requires that __ of the plant be tested for CLI. The comcast standard is _____

75% and 100%

352

The CLI is done at an altitude of ____, using 108 to 137MHz band

1500ft(450Meters)

353

Sending AC from two different power supplies, causing a large spark

bucking power

354

Comcast troubleshooting steps

Identify, Isolate,Fix,Verify

355

a low resistance connection between two points in an electric circuit that forms an alternative path for a portion of the current

Shunts

356

Steps for verifying a backwards tap

1) the tap plate and re-check the input port. 2)if there is no signal present, check the output port. 3) if signal is present here, the housing is backwards and requires re-splicing.

357

if you encounter a conductor that is 300v or less

avoid contact with the conductor

358

if you encounter a conductor that is between 300V and 750V

stay at least 12 inches away from this conductor

359

do foreign voltage detectors DC voltage

NO

360

Divide and conquer does what

reduces repair time.

361

the reverse path must be balanced for___ just as the with the forward system

unity gain

362

threshold for ingress at 5-18mhz

-20dBc (Decibels relative to carrier)

363

threshold for ingress at 18-42mhz

-35dBc (Decibels relative to carrier)

364

Max min sweep formula

N/2+1.5=

365

telemetry reverse sweep formula

N/2+1=

366

is defined as two or more customers without service or with impaired service, due to the same root cause

outage

367

is a plant fault with overlapping correlated trouble call

priority plant fault

368

is a signals inability to be transmitted from one cable or device to another cable or device and measured in dB

Isolation

369

is the difference in dB, of a signal level, injected into one output port, and the measured level of the same signal on another output port with the input port properly terminated

port to port isolation

370

is the interface location in a cable system where a fiber enters a neighborhood and the optical signal is converted into an electrical signal to connect to coaxial cables serving individual homes.

Node

371

a node has a minimum of

One optical receiver, one optical transmitter, power supply, and a forward and return amplifier module

372

is an amplifier used to transport signals to longer distances

trunk amplifier

373

used to add to the strength of signals in order to compensate for higher loss of the feeder and to provide enough signals for the drop cables and for multiple customers

Bridger amplifiers

374

are high gain amplifiers and are operated so that the output levels are higher as well

Line extenders

375

samples the stations output level using the directional coupler 15 usually at a specific frequency or channel. used to compensate for fluctuations of the input

Automatic gain control

376

recovers the RF information modulated onto the optical carrier at the headend

Optical detector

377

refers to the percentage of optical modulation, per channel, driving a laser transmitter

Optical modulation Index(OMI)

378

for every db change in optical power there is a 2db change in RF

know that rule

379

to energize or power the equipment( nodes amplifiers and other active devices in the rf portion of the network). usually includes checks for continuity, shorts, and signal flow.

activation

380

whatever tilt u need multiply by 1.25 to get desired eq

know this rule

381

has attenuation that duplicates that of a cable.

Cable Equivalency (Cable simulator)

382

used for the first stage of amplification for a trunk or multi output station, picked for its low noise figure

integrated circuit (IC)

383

this device monitors the change in temperature and makes an attenuation and tilt change based on typical cable spacing between stations

thermal level control

384

this is usually a power double device

second stage gain

385

is used to compensate for frequency response signatures of passive and active devices in the system,

Response network/Mop up

386

circuitry used to adjust the frequency of an amplifier

response network

387

usually a passive network placed between the input and output amplifier module. it is used to correct fro a frequency response problem seen at the output of the amplifier

mop up

388

the deviation in response at the output of an amplifier or passive device when compared to the response st its input.

signatures

389

used to set the amplifiers output tilt.

interstage Equalizer

390

a measure of an amplifiers output level to the level of distortion it produces

output capability

391

is used to inject return test signals for alignment/sweep of the return portion of the amplifier

Insertion point

392

Reverse pad=amplifier upstream design gain-total span loss

know this rule

393

have forward and return on the same test point

bi directional test points

394

RF portion of the cable plant fed from a node

Node service area

395

we can utilize a 3% ____ without excessive distortion with a carriage of 100 channels

OMI

396

is the actual seep response before normalization

raw sweep

397

is the exponent or the power to which a fixed number(the base) must be raised in order to produce a given number

logarithm

398

the number of times the base is multiplied by itself

exponent

399

1)any number raised to the exponent 0 is equal to 1.2)any number raised to the exponent 1 is equal to itself. 3) two multiply two or more numbers with the same base, simply add the exponents. 4) to divide two or more numbers with the same base simply subtract the exponents.

Exponent rules

400

is a number where the base is 10

power of 10

401

one tenth of a bel=

Decibel

402

is the unit for expressing in logarithmic terms, the ratio between two power levels

Bel

403

with the 10 log function each double in value is equal to 3.01db increase, while -3.01 divides the value in half

know this rule

404

an absolute level that describes the amount of signal at a specific location in the system.

dBmV

405

10log=

wattage

406

20 log=

voltages

407

0dBmV=

1mV

408

each 6dB change either doubles or halves the voltage, and each 20dB change affects the voltage by a factor of ten

know this rule

409

a discontinuous signal whose various states are discrete intervals apart

digital signal

410

used to convert an analog signal to a digital signal

Digitizer

411

are a continuous signal or carrier that varies in amplitude or frequency

analog signals

412

this term is short for binary digit. refers to an electrical impulse representing a zero or a one. the smallest unit of measurement a computer can handle

bit

413

a set of bits that represent a single character. usually there are eight bits in a

Byte

414

the number of changed states that can occur per second

Baud

415

advantage of analog transmissions are

1) no conversion necessary for human recognition 2) economical over short distances (up to 25miles)

416

disadvantages of analog transmission are

1) added distortion and noise when employing amplification. 2) electrical interference modulating the waveform. 3) limited distance for acceptable performance.

417

digital conversion consists of

sampling, quantization, and encoding

418

is the measuring of the analog signal at specific intervals

Sampling

419

is the assigning of a specific value to each of the samples

Quantization

420

is the process by which these values are converted into a data or bit stream

Encoding

421

can interfere with an analog signal and reduce its clarity

thermal or interfering noise

422

is synchronized with that of the transmitter so its available to read the digital sample when it arrives

digital receiver or regenerator

423

are regenerated rather than amplified

Digital bits

424

is the means of superimposing sound on an RF carrier

AM

425

is the means of superimposing sound on an RF carrier of a particular frequency

FM

426

3 different types of modulation in analog

Amplitude(AM),Frequency(FM), and Phase(PM)

427

five most common modulation schemes are

1)Amplitude shift keying(ASK) 2) Frequency shift keying(FSK). 3) Phase shift keying(PSK). 4) Quadrature phase shift keying(QPSK). 5) Quadrature amplitude modulation(QAM)

428

frequency and phase of the signal carrier are constant. amplitude is varied

Amplitude shit keying(ASK)

429

amplitude and phase of the signal are constant. frequency is varied. used in pathrak telemetries

Frequency is varied (FSK)

430

amplitude and frequency are constant. phase is varied.

Phase shift keying (PSK)

431

defined as the position on a waveform cycle at a specific point in time. on cycle is defined as 360 degrees of phase

Phase

432

the two most common digital modulation schemes that use a combination of changes are

QPSK and QAM

433

unwanted sum of and difference in frequencies resulting from the heterodyning of two or more signals

Beat

434

are caused when an analog TV signal arrives at a receiver just before or after the desired TV signal

Ghost

435

caused when the same channel from two or more different TV stations is received by the same antenna

co channel interference

436

caused by power line arcing, lightning, electrical motors, automobile ignition, and other sources of high rise time energy entering the cable system from the tap up to and including the TV receiver

Electrical interference

437

ingress from transmitters operating in the upstream frequency bandwith

return path interference

438

often caused by poorly made or corroded connectors ,it actually changes the shape of the RF wave from(disimilar metals)

common path distortion (CPD)

439

what causes CPD

when two or more carries encounter a non linear device, such as a connection where oxidation has occurred, harmonics and difference are produced

440

a chemical change caused by a reaction to oxygen, such as rust

Oxidation

441

a component frequency of the signal that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency.(twice whatever original frequency is)

Harmonics

442

the amount of noise an amp adds

noise figure

443

is caused by random electron activity of the atoms that make up the conductor, resistor, or any part of the passive circuit in question at any temperature above absolute zero

thermal noise

444

a theoretical temperature equivalent to the absolute absence of heat and equal to -273.15 degrees C, -459.67F, or zero degrees Kelvin

absolute zero

445

change in termination noise amounts to approximately .17dB per 20 degree fahrenheit change in temperature

know this rule

446

C/N Rules

Rule 1) if the input level numerically equals an amplifiers NF, the output ratio will always be 59.2dB. Rule 2) for each dB when the input level is raised above the amplifiers NF, the output ratio improves by an equal amount above 59.2. Rule3) C/N ratio at the output of a single amplifier is always worse than that at the input an amount equal to the amplifiers NF

447

log uses

10logN for C/N, 12 logN for composite second order (CSO), and 20 logN for Xmod and CTB

448

undesired change in the waveform of a signal

distortions

449

the second harmonic products of any two channels are typically 6dB below the level of the sum and difference products

Discrete second order

450

the combination of the amplitude and the logarithmic sum of the number of beats that fall in a channel determine the level of interference

composite second order

451

when a carrier is applied to an amplifier, it will produce the second order beats and will produced third order products as well

discrete third order

452

as each carrier is added to the system , it interacts with all the other carriers producing more and more second and third order beats.

composite third order

453

C/CTB follows a 20log relationship, and each dB raise in the levels of an amplifier, the carrier to CTB gets worse by two dB

know this rule

454

adding two devices with the same C/CTB ratios degrades the result by 6dB

know this rule

455

the crossing of modulation from one channel to another. typically manifests itself as a vertical bar in the viewed picture

cross modulation(XMOD)

456

this is a third order product and follows a 20log function for every dB that the levels of an amplifier are raised the carrier to cross mod ratio gets 2db worse

know this rule

457

doubling the number of channels carried degrades this ratio by 6dB and so does doubling the cascade

know this rule

458

appears as horizontal bars in the picture . a primary source is the power passing chokes or capacitor leak in passive devices.

Hum modulation

459

amplifier circuit paths that allow AC voltage to be directed onto specific cables

Power passing chokes

460

hum modulation is a low frequency signal, which the FCC states must be less than 3% of the video carrier level

Hum modulation Test

461

are the two basic parameters used to evaluate the quality and performance of the digital signals

MER and BER

462

is defined as the ratio of the number of wrong bits over the number of total bits

Ber

463

is typically an overload effect noted through digital signal processing equipment. this is an overdrive, or over modulation of the single carrier

Spectral re growth

464

an international telecommunications standard that permits the addition of high speed data transfer to an existing CATV system

DOCSIS

465

generates light in the transmitter

Laser Diode

466

is a family of standards for compressing decompressing A/V in a digital format

MPEG

467

advantages of MPEG are

remove redundant info without losing quality while saving bandwith

468

MPEG1

video CD

469

MPEG2

HDTV/DVD

470

MPEG4

streaming video

471

has all the spatial info

I picture

472

use both past and subsequent pictures

B picture

473

is calculated by comparing previous and successive picture

P picture

474

a cable version of CDMA , a cell phone technology that allows many users to access the network at the same time

SCDMA

475

provides the ability to control latency

QOS

476

how many channels can u bond with docsis 3.0

4 or 8 down 4 up

477

number of timeouts caused by the cmts not receiving a response within aspecified time from the cmts to a ranging request. upstream errors

T3

478

number of timeouts caused by the modem not receiving a response within a specified time from the cmts to a periodic maintenance request. downstream errors

T4

479

the operational settings for the cable modem

Boot file

480

a series of Reed -Solomon symbols forms the codeword. it s a series of values that conforms to a known pattern.

codewords

481

when there are more than___ errored symbols in a codeword the entire codeword is errored

3

482

technologies that allow cable modems to share the upstream carriers in the hfc network with multiple devices like cable modems, emtas, and set top boxes

TDMA and SCDMA

483

method for transferring data across the network

Trivial file transfer protocol (TFTP)

484

assigns time slots for when modems can speak. configured in the CMTS

TDMA

485

instead of a time slot, the modem gets a code for all the data it is sending

SCDMA

486

is a set of rules that govern how devices transport data

Protocol

487

allows interoperability of devices from different vendors

protocols

488

is a way to tell the sending server that not all packets got to their destination, and please resend them.

Transmission control protocol/ internet protocol (TCP/IP)

489

used to transport voice and video media

Real Time Transport Protocol (RTP)

490

unlike tcp/ip it has no error correction

Universal Datagram Protocol (UDP)

491

UTP

unshielded twisted pair

492

has a field of 32 bits and dotted decimal

ipv4

493

written in colon hexidecimal format and uses numbers and letters

ipv6

494

can be configured for ipv4only or ipv6only

singlestacked device

495

can be configured fro both ipv4 or 6

dual stacked device

496

rules for writing ipv6 addresses

1) omit leading zeros, meaning zeros at the beginning of each set of four characters. 2) replace consecutive all zero chunks within an address by using a double colon

497

What component is known as the brain of the cable system?

Headend

498

What are the signals that are used to pass channels to the customer?

Analog and Digital

499

Any device which does not require electricity to perform its function?

Passive Device

500

Any device which requires electricity to perform its function?

Active Device