Neoplasms 2 Flashcards Preview

ESA 2- Mechanisms of Disease > Neoplasms 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neoplasms 2 Deck (63):
1

What does the ability of malignant cels to invade and spread to distant sites lead to?

Greatly increased tumour burden

2

What does increased tumour burden cause if untreated?

A vast number of 'parasitic' malignant tumours

3

Can a patient develop metastases if they are clinically tumour free?

Yes

4

What must happen for malignant cells to get from a primary site to a secondary site?

They must grow and invade at the primary site, enter a transport system and lodge at a secondary site and grow at the secondary site to form a new tumour

5

What are micrometasteses?

Microscopic tumour deposits that are clinically undetectable

6

What is it called when a tumour grows at a second site to form a new tumour?

Colonisation

7

What must happen at all points if a tumour is to metastasise?

It must evade destruction by immune cells

8

Why is the process of tumour metastasis inefficient?

As it needs to do all three steps

9

How do the vast majority of attempted tumour metastasis fail?

Due to difficulty transporting and difficulty growing at a secondary site

10

What have the steps of metastasis be studied in?

Mainly carcinomas rather than other types of malignant neoplasms

11

What does invasion into surrounding tissue by carcinoma cells require?

Altered adhesion
Stomal proteolysis
Motility

12

What are the changes undergone by carcinoma cells when invading surround tissues called?

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)

13

What does EMT create?

A carcinoma cell phenotype that appears more like a mesenchymal cell than an epithelial cell

14

What does altered cell adhesion between malignant cells involve?

A reduction in E-cadherin expression

15

What does altered adhesion between malignant cells and stromal proteins involve?

Changes in Integrin expression

16

What must cells be able to degrade in order to invade?

The basement membrane and stroma

17

What does invasion degradation of the basement membrane and stoma involve?

Altered expression of proteases, notably matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)

18

What do malignant cells take advantage of?

Nearby non-neoplastic cells

19

What do malignant cells and nearby non-neoplastic cells together form?

A cancer niche

20

What do the normal cells in a cancer niche do?

Provide some growth factors and proteases

21

What does altered mobility involve?

Changes in the actin cytoskeleton

22

How does signalling through integrins occur?

Via small G proteins such as members of the Rho family

23

What can malignant cells enter?

Blood vessels via capillaries and venules
Lymphatic vessels
Fluid in body cavities (pleura, peritoneal, pericardial and brain ventricles)

24

What is metastasis caused by malignant cells entering fluid in body cavities called?

Transcoelomic spread

25

When do malignant cells need to metastasise by entering blood vessels?

If bigger than 1mm

26

What helps malignant cells travel by the blood stream?

The cancer niche

27

What must happen to malignant cells at a secondary site?

They must grow

28

What is the growing of malignant cells at a secondary site called?

Colonisation

29

How can organ donation cause cancer?

Micrometastases can transfer through organ donations, even if the donor never officially had cancer- could still have deposits, which then developed in the immunosuppressed organ receivers

30

What is failed colonisation considered to be?

The greatest barrier to successful formation of metastasis

31

Why is colonisation considered to be the greatest barrier to successful formation of metastases?

Because many malignant cells lodge at secondary sites, but these tiny cell clusters either die or fail to grow into clinically detectable tumours

32

What are surviving microscopic deposits that fail to grow called?

Micrometastases

33

What is tumour dormancy?

When an apparently disease-free person may harbour micrometastases

34

What is a malignant neoplasm relapse after many years typically due to?

One or more micrometastases starting to grow

35

What does the site of a secondary neoplasm depend on?

Regional drainage of blood, lymph and coelomic fluid
The 'seed and soil' phenomenon

36

Where do lymphatic metastases spread to?

Draining lymph nodes

37

Where do tumours that spread by transcoelomic spread go to?

Other areas in the coelomic space or to adjacent organs

38

Where do blood-borne metastases go?

Sometimes (but not always) to the next capillary bed that the cells encounter, often the liver and lung

39

What may the 'seed and soil' phenomenon explain?

The seemingly unpredictable distribution of blood-bourne metastases

40

What is the seed and soil phenomenon due to?

Interactions between malignant cells and the local tumour environment (the niche) at the secondary site

41

Where do carcinomas typically spread to first?

Draining lymph nodes

42

Where do carcinomas typically spread to after lymph nodes?

Distant blood-borne sites

43

What are the common sites of blood borne metastasis?

Lung, bone, liver and brain

44

What neoplams are more frequently spread to bone?

Breast, bronchus, thyroid and prostate

45

What is meant by malignant tumours having 'personalities'?

Some malignant neoplasms are more aggressive and metastasise very early in their course

46

Give an example of an aggressive tumour?

Small cell bronchial carcinoma

47

Give an example of a tumour that almost never metastasises?

Basal cell carcinoma in the skin

48

What is the likelihood of metastases related to?

The size of the primary neoplasm

49

What is the size of the likelihood of metastasis the basis for?

Cancer staging

50

How can the effects of a neoplasm on the host be classified?

Those that are due to direct local effects
Those that can be due to the primary neoplasms and/or the secondary neoplasms
Those due to indirect systemic effects

51

What do indirect systemic effects include?

Effects of increasing tumour burden, secreted hormones and/or miscellaneous effects

52

What are indirect systemic effects sometimes referred to as?

Paraneoplastic syndromes

53

What are the most relevant effects for benign neoplasms?

Local effects from the primary and hormonal effects

54

What are the local effects of primary and secondary neoplasms due to?

Direct invasion and destruction of normal tissue
Ulceration at surface leading to bleeding
Compression of adjacent structures
Blocking tubes and orifices

55

What does increasing tumour burden lead to?

A parasitic effect on the host

56

What does the parasitic effect of increasing tumour burden work with to produce symptoms?

Secreted factors such as cytokines

57

What does the parasitic effect of the increased tumour burden have on the host?

Reduced appetite and weight loss (cachexia)
Malaise
Immunosupression
Thrombosis

58

Other than increased tumour burden, how can a cancer cause immunosuppression?

Due to direct bone marrow destruction

59

What happens in benign neoplasms of the endocrine glands?

They are well differentiated, and so typically produce hormones

60

Give an example of a benign neoplasm of an endocrine gland

A thyroid adenoma, which produces thyroxine

61

Can malignant tumours produce hormones?

Sometimes

62

Give two examples of a malignant tumour that can produce hormones?

Bronchial small cell carcinoma can produce ACTH or ADH
Bronchial squamous cell carcinoma can produce PTH-like hormone

63

What are the miscellaneous systemic effects of neoplasms?

Neuropathies affecting the brain and peripheral nerves
Skin problems such as pruritus and abnormal pigmentation
Fever
Finger clubbing
Myositis