Neural Control 1 Flashcards Preview

Anatomic Kinesiology > Neural Control 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neural Control 1 Deck (33):
1

What causes muscle contractions?

Stimulation by the nervous system - signal from brain or spinal cord to muscles

2

What are the 5 levels of control in the CNS?

1- Cerebral Cortex
2- Basal Ganglia
3- Cerebellum
4- Brain Stem
5- Spinal Cord

3

Cerebral Cortex

Highest level of control.
Interpretation of stimulus.

4

Basal Ganglia

Posture & equilibrium.
Learned movements (riding a bike, throwing a ball, etc.)

5

Cerebellum

Integrator of sensory information.
Provides feedback relative to motion.
Timing & intensity of muscle activity (movement refinement).

6

Brain Stem

Integrates all CNS activity through excitation & inhibition [on/off](arousal).
"The control room"

7

Spinal Cord

Pathway between CNS & PNS.
Most specific control.
Integrates various simple & complex spinal reflexes.
Integrates cortical & basal ganglia activity with various classifications of spinal reflexes.
Overall movement and balance controls

8

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Divided into sensory & motor divisions.

9

Sensory/Afferent Nerves

Bring impulses from receptors towards the CNS

10

Motor/Efferent Nerves

Carry impulses away from the CNS

11

Cranial Nerves

12 pairs numbered for the order in which they emerge from anterior to posterior in the brain

12

1) Olfactory Nerve

Sensory
Smell
Identifying familiar odors

13

2) Optic Nerve

Sensory
Sight/vision
Visual acuity

14

3) Oculomotor Nerve

Motor
Inferior oblique muscles of eyeball
Levator of eyelid
Upward, downward, medial gaze & reaction to light

15

4) Trochlear

Superior oblique muscle of eyeball
Downward & lateral gaze

16

5) Trigeminal Nerve

Mixed
Touch/pain
Skin of face and scalp
Muscles of mastication
Corneal and facial sensations

17

6) Abducens Nerves

Motor
Lateral rectus muscle of eyeball
Lateral gaze

18

7) Facial Nerve

Mixed
Taste, touch, pain
Facial muscles
Lateral gaze, expressions, familiar tastes

19

8) Vestibularcochlear/Acoustic Nerve

Sensory
Hearing, balance/equilibrium
Detecting presence of sounds

20

9) Glossopharyngeal Nerve

Mixed
Touch, pain, taste
Muscles of pharynx
Gag reflex, swallowing

21

10) Vagus Nerve

Mixed
Touch, pain
Muscles of palate, pharynx & larynx
Gag reflex, swallowing, speech

22

11) Accessory Nerve

Motor
Shoulder shrugging and head movements
Sternocleidomastoid & trapezius muscles

23

12) Hypoglossal Nerve

Motor
Tongue and tongue movements

24

Spinal Nerves

31 pairs that pass through openings between the vertebrae on each side
Form different plexuses

25

Cervical Plexus

Cervical Nerves 1-4
Sensation in upper shoulders to back of head and front of neck

26

Brachial Plexus

Cervical Nerves 5-8 + thoracic nerve 1.
Motor & sensory function to the upper extremity and most of scapula

27

Thoracic Nerves 2-12

Run directly to specific anatomical locations in thorax

28

Lumbosacral Plexus

Lumbar, sacral & coccygeal nerves.
Sensation & motor function to lower trunk, entire lower extremity & perineum (pelvic floor).

29

Dermatome

Defined area of skin supplies by a specific spinal nerve

30

Myotome

Muscle or group of muscles supplied by a specific spinal nerve

31

Dendrites

Branching projections that transmit impulses to neuron & cell body

32

Axon

Elongated projection that transmit impulses away from neuron cell bodies

33

Interneurons

Central or connecting neurons that conduct impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons