Flashcards in Neural Control 1 Deck (33):
What causes muscle contractions?
Stimulation by the nervous system - signal from brain or spinal cord to muscles
What are the 5 levels of control in the CNS?
1- Cerebral Cortex
2- Basal Ganglia
4- Brain Stem
5- Spinal Cord
Highest level of control.
Interpretation of stimulus.
Posture & equilibrium.
Learned movements (riding a bike, throwing a ball, etc.)
Integrator of sensory information.
Provides feedback relative to motion.
Timing & intensity of muscle activity (movement refinement).
Integrates all CNS activity through excitation & inhibition [on/off](arousal).
"The control room"
Pathway between CNS & PNS.
Most specific control.
Integrates various simple & complex spinal reflexes.
Integrates cortical & basal ganglia activity with various classifications of spinal reflexes.
Overall movement and balance controls
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Divided into sensory & motor divisions.
Bring impulses from receptors towards the CNS
Carry impulses away from the CNS
12 pairs numbered for the order in which they emerge from anterior to posterior in the brain
1) Olfactory Nerve
Identifying familiar odors
2) Optic Nerve
3) Oculomotor Nerve
Inferior oblique muscles of eyeball
Levator of eyelid
Upward, downward, medial gaze & reaction to light
Superior oblique muscle of eyeball
Downward & lateral gaze
5) Trigeminal Nerve
Skin of face and scalp
Muscles of mastication
Corneal and facial sensations
6) Abducens Nerves
Lateral rectus muscle of eyeball
7) Facial Nerve
Taste, touch, pain
Lateral gaze, expressions, familiar tastes
8) Vestibularcochlear/Acoustic Nerve
Detecting presence of sounds
9) Glossopharyngeal Nerve
Touch, pain, taste
Muscles of pharynx
Gag reflex, swallowing
10) Vagus Nerve
Muscles of palate, pharynx & larynx
Gag reflex, swallowing, speech
11) Accessory Nerve
Shoulder shrugging and head movements
Sternocleidomastoid & trapezius muscles
12) Hypoglossal Nerve
Tongue and tongue movements
31 pairs that pass through openings between the vertebrae on each side
Form different plexuses
Cervical Nerves 1-4
Sensation in upper shoulders to back of head and front of neck
Cervical Nerves 5-8 + thoracic nerve 1.
Motor & sensory function to the upper extremity and most of scapula
Thoracic Nerves 2-12
Run directly to specific anatomical locations in thorax
Lumbar, sacral & coccygeal nerves.
Sensation & motor function to lower trunk, entire lower extremity & perineum (pelvic floor).
Defined area of skin supplies by a specific spinal nerve
Muscle or group of muscles supplied by a specific spinal nerve
Branching projections that transmit impulses to neuron & cell body
Elongated projection that transmit impulses away from neuron cell bodies