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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (28):
1

Pseudopolar (unipolar)

○ Sensory
○ 1 process that splits (hard to separate the axon from the dendrites)

2

Bipolar

○ Retinal, cochlear
2 processes

3

Multipolar

○ Most common
Motor and association, many dendrites, one axon

4

Anaxonic

○ Some CNS neurons
No obvious axon

5

Supporting Cells in the PNS:

Schwann
Sattelite

6

Microglia

Migrate through CNS and phagocytose debris

7

Astrocytes

Regulate neurogenesis (needed for stem cells to differentiate)
Removes K from ECF
Take up glucose from blood, metabolize it to lactate, then release it for use as an energy source by neurons, which metabolize it aerobically into CO2 and H2O for production of ATP

8

Tyelenol

Inhibits NO

9

Rabies

• Deadly viral infection (bitten by an infected animal)
• Virus infects the brain, immune cells and antibodies can't enter the brain
No treatment after symptoms appear, but before, rapid treatment with anti-rabies antibodies can help stop infection

10

Patch clamp

Recording electrode in cell culture

11

Myotonia:

• Neuromuscular disorders characterized by delayed relaxation of skeletal muscle after voluntary contraction or electrical stimulation
• Can be caused by mutations in muscle Cl channels (humans, dogs…etc)
○ Channel doesn't open properly
○ Repolarization delayed, results in several action potentials firing instead of just one
○ Too much contraction, dog falls over
• In goats, when startled or excited, temporary stiffening of muscles occur, When muscles relax after a few seconds, the animal jumps up and is fine
Have a higher meat to bone ratio (3:1 instead of 2:1), has more tender meat- more valued

12

Lyme Disease

○ Bit by infected tick, substances in tick saliva disrupt local immune response
○ Spirochetes multiply in the skin
○ Immune response causes characteristic circular lesion, but neutrophils which are necessary to eliminate the infection fail to appear
Bacteria spreads to the bloodstream to joints, heart, nervous system, and distant skin sites

13

Chromothesia

Hear music as colours

14

Synaesthesia

Experience sounds as taste

15

Gray Matter

Cell bodies, dendrites

16

White matter

Axons (myelin sheaths produce white colour)

17

Insula

○ Region buried deep within the lacteral sulcus (division between frontal and temporal lobes)
○ Implicated in encoding memory, integration of sensory information with visceral (internal) responses
Receives olfactory, gustatory, auditory, and somatosensory (mostly pain) information

18

Left Side of Brain

Speech
Writing
Main language integration center
Calculation

19

Right Side of brain

Simple language comprehension
Spatial concepts

20

Kim Peek:

• Born with brain damage (no corpus callosum)
• Also known as Rain Man
• Remembers every page from every book he ever read
Different wiring of the brain

21

Christopher Langan:

• Highest known IQ (195-210)
• No formal university education
• Developed the cognitive theoretic model of the universe
Integrating different aspects of looking at the universe (philosophy, math, chem..etc)

22

Orbifrontal Area

People with damage to the orbitofrontal area of the prefrontal cortex experience severe impulsive behaviour (verging on sociopathic)

23

Epithalamus

○ Dorsal segment of Diencephalon
○ Contains the pineal gland which secretes melatonin
§ "Hormone of darkness", helps regulate circadian rhythms

24

Hypothalamus

○ Sits above the optic chiasm
○ Most inferior portion of the diencephalon
○ Site of the master clock (SCN- superchiasmatic nucleus)
○ Regulated daily body processes
§ Hunger, thirst, body temperature regulation
§ Hormone secretion from pituitary gland
Contributes to regulation of sleep and wake

25

Midbrain:

Cell bodies of dopaminergic neurons are highly concentrated in the midbrain

Nigrostriatal
Mesolimbic

26

Cerebellum

○ Second largest structure of the brain
○ >50 billion neurons (gray and white matter)
○ Monitors and refines motor activity initiated elsewhere
§ Receives input from proprioceptors (joint, tendon muscle receptors), and together with signals from the motor areas of the cerebral cortex, it participates in coordination of movement

27

Medulla

○ All ascending and descending fiber tracts providing communication between spinal cord and brain must pass through the medulla
Required for the regulation of breathing, vital center responses

28

Courchesne Theory of Overstimulation

○ Suggests that autistic children can seem antisocial because they shun external stimulation since the cerebellum can't take it
Children get stuck in repetitive behaviour because it calms the easily overstimulated brain (can appear to live in a world of their own)