Neuro anatomy terms Flashcards Preview

NEURO > Neuro anatomy terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuro anatomy terms Deck (39):
1

Tracts

 Tracts - location of a pathway, eg spinothalamic tract

2

Commisures

 Commisures - tract connecting one hemisphere to the other, eg anterior
commisure

3

Lemnisci

 Lemnisci - narrow strip of fibres, eg medial lemniscus

4

Funiculi

 Funiculi - ‘rope’ or ‘cord’, eg lateral funiculus

5

Fasiculi

 Fasiculi - ‘bundle’, eg gracile fasiculus

6

Capsule

 Capsule - sheet of white matter fibres borders a nucleus of grey matter

7

Column

 Column - longitudinally running fibres are separated by other structures, eg
dorsal column

8

Cortex

Cortex - laminated grey matter on outside of brain, eg motor cortex

9

Nuclei

Nuclei - collections of nerve cell bodies within the CNS, eg arcuate nucleus

10

Ganglia

Ganglia - collections of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS (eg doral root ganglia)
AND some in CNS that have a capsule (eg basal ganglia)

11

Afferents

Afferents - axons taking information towards the CNS, eg sensory fibres

12

Efferents

Efferents - axons taking information to another site, eg motor fibres

13

Reticular

Reticular - ‘netlike’, where grey and white matter mix, eg reticular formation of
brainstem

14

Ipsilateral

–Ipsilateral - same side

15

Contralateral

–Contrallateral - opposite side

16

Medial

 Medial = towards midline

17

Median

 Median = at midline

18

Lateral

 Lateral = away from midline

19

Rostral

 Rostral = towards nose (anterior)

20

Caudal

 Caudal = towards tail (posterior)

21

In brain stem and cord
dorsal
ventral

In brain stem & cord
 Dorsal = Posterior
 Ventral = Anterior

22

In cerebrum
dorsal
ventral

In cerebrum
 Dorsal = Superior
 Ventral = Inferior

23

Gyri

Gyri (gyrus) - ridges

24

Sulci

Sulci (sulcus) - grooves

25

Frontal lobe functions

Frontal
 Voluntary movement on opposite side of body
 Frontal lobe of dominant hemisphere controls speech and writing
 Intellectual functioning, thought processes, reasoning and memory

26

Parietal functions

Parietal
 Receives and interprets sensations,

27

Temporal lobe functions

Temporal
 Understanding spoken word, sounds as well as memory and emotion

28

Occipital lobe functions

Occipital
 Understanding visual images and meaning of written words

29

Grey matter structures deep in the white matter surround the ventricles and
include:

Grey matter structures deep in the white matter surround the ventricles and
include:
 Thalamus: relay centre directing inputs to cortical areas
 Hypothalamus: ANS, links endocrine system to brain, homeostasis
 Basal ganglia (Caudate nucleus, Putamen, Globus Pallidus): motor
control, cognition and non-motor behaviour

30

Cerebellum

Cerebellum - co-ordinates movement & balance
 Lies over dorsal surface of brain stem and attached by 3 peduncles:
 Superior
 Middle
 Inferior
 Separated from dorsal brainstem by IVth ventricle (forms part of its roof)
 Made up of folded cortex, white matter and deep inner nuclei
 Cortex folded into many transverse folia

- cerebellum is involved in the coordination of voluntary motor movement,
balance and equilibrium and muscle tone

31

Underlying the cortex is the white matter:

Underlying the cortex is the white matter:
 Many connections between cortex and other CNS structures, eg internal
capsule, corpus callosum

32

What does cerebellar injury result in?

Cerebellar injury results in movements that are slow and uncoordinated, for
example:
 loss of coordination of motor movement (asynergia)
 movement tremors (intention tremor)
 weak muscles (hypotonia)
 abnormal eye movements (nystagmus)

33

What are the functions of the brain stem?

Brain stem - many functions including:
 Special senses
 Sensory and motor for head & neck via cranial nerves
 Autonomic regulation of body
 Regulates consciousness
 Pathway between brain and spinal cord

34

What does the midbrain contain?

 Midbrain:
 Tectum (superior & inferior colliculi)
 Cerebral peduncle (tegmentum & crus cerebri)
 Surrounds cerebral aqueduct

35

Where is the pons?

 Pons: Bridge to cerebellum

36

Where is the medulla oblongata?

 Medulla oblongata: continuous with cord

37

What two types of specialised cell does the CNA contain?

The CNS contains two types of specialised cell:
 Nerve cells or neuron(e)s

 Neuroglia

38

Name a few types of neuron

 Many types, for eg; pyramidal, stellate, basket, Golgi, Purkinje,
chandelier etc

39

Name a few types of Neuroglia

 Astrocytes
 Oligodendrocytes
 Microglia
 (Ependyma)