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Flashcards in Neuro and Some of Male GU Deck (89):
1

alert

opens eyes, looks at you, responds well

2

lethargic

drowsy, can open eyes look at you to respond, then fall back asleep

3

obtunded

opens eyes looks at you, confused responses, no interest in environment

4

Stuporous

wakens only with painful stimuli, verbal response slow/absent

5

comatose

unarousable to any stimuli

6

decorticate

upper extremities flexed, lower straight and externally rotated, brain stem not inhibited by motor function of cerebral cortex

7

decerebrate

damage to pons/lesion compressing lower thalamus/midbrain
upper and lower extended

8

speech and language

quantity, rate, volume, articulation, fluency (word comprehension, repetition, naming, reading, writing)

9

Affect

external emotional expression
Hypo/hyper
change quickly
eye contact
situation-appropriate

10

Mood

labile, intensity, suicidal, situation appropriate

11

thought process - derailment/loose association

changes quickly unrelated topics

12

thought process - tangentiality

responses irrelevant

13

thought process - pressured speech

quick, long answers, doesn't finish thought b/f changing

14

thought process - incoherence

word salad

15

thought process - circumstantiality

speech delayed in reaching goal b/c too much detail, but organized

16

thought process - distractable speech

change subject to unrelated thing in environment

17

thought process - perseveration

persistent repetition

18

thought process - clanging

words chosen based on sound/rhyme

19

thought process - confabulation

fabrication of facts to fill memory gaps

20

Thought content -

obsessions, compulsions, delusions, phobias, feelings of unreality/depersonalization/anxiety

21

Perceptions

illusions, hallucinations

22

Memory

registration (learn new), recent/remote memory

23

Cognition

attention, information/vocab, abstract thinking (proverbs, similarities)

24

Judgment

evaluate situation and form response (make solution)

25

Insight

understand illness/situation

26

Mini Mental State exam (folstein)

27-30 = normal
20-26 - mild dementia
<10 severe dementia

27

Aphonia

larynx/throat damage - can't speak

28

Dysarthria

Facial/oral muscle abnormality - can't speak

29

Aphasia

loss of comprehension/power of expression of speech

30

Broca's aphasia

expressive aphasia

31

Wernicke's aphasia

receptive aphasia

32

Cerebellar system

rhythmic movements /posture

33

vestibular system

balance, eye , head & body movements

34

sensory system

position sense (proprioception)

35

Coordination testing

Rapid Alternative Movements, point-to-point, romberg, pronator drift

36

Dysdiadochokinesis

non-fluid rapid alternating movements

37

Dysmetria

inability of point-to-point movements

38

Romberg asses

cerebellar function , proprioception

39

pronator drift

upper motor neuron function, proprioception

40

Tandem

heel-to-toe walking

41

spastic gait

unilateral corticospinal tract injury (stroke, brain injury), Leg crosses ONE SIDE

42

scissors gait

Bilateral corticospinal injury
knees/thighs touch together
both legs cross midline

43

steppage gait

foot drop

44

cerebellar gait

cerebellum damage (alcoholism)
feet wide apart, drunk style

45

Basal ganglia gait

parkinson's/Festination
small steps, less arm swing, body flexed forward

46

fasiculations

twitching in contiguous muscle groups

47

Increased resistance in PROM

spacicity, lead pipe rigidity, cogwheeling

48

Decreased resistance in PROM

hypotonia, flacidity

49

Resting tremor

Parkinson's
pill-rolling

50

Intention tremor

brainstem/cerebellar disease

51

postural tremor

sustained posture

52

chorea

brief rapid jerky movement
huntington's disease

53

Athetosis

slow, twisting movement
Cerebral Palsy

54

Strength scale - 1

visible flicker

55

Strength scale - 0

no movement

56

Strength scale - 2

active movement w/ no gravity

57

Strength scale - 3

active movement w/ gravity (no resistance)

58

Strength scale - 4

active movement w/ gravity w/ little resistance

59

Strength scale - 5

active movement w/ gravity w/ full resistance

60

strength testing - both sides at same time?

NEVER

61

5 components of reflex arc

stretch receptor, afferent peripheral nerve fiber, anterior horn cell, efferent nerve fiber, neuromuscular junction

62

babinski response present - doc?

"toe upgoing"

63

Cremasteric reflex

stroke inner thigh proximal to distal, testicle rises on same side

64

Spinothalamic tract tests

compulsive rxn sensations - sharp/dull, pinprick, temperature

65

Posterior column tests

vibration, joint position

66

Posterior column + Spinothalamic tract test

Light touch

67

Vibration sense

place vibration on MTP, feel with DIP

68

higher cortical sensory discrimination tests

2 point discrimination
graphesthesia
stereognosis

69

Phalen's test

Carpal tunnel
hold wrists 90 degree flexion
+ if numbness, tingling

70

Tinel's Test

carpal tunnel
percuss regenerating nerve
+ if tingling/electrical sensations

71

Kernig's test

Meningismus (itis)
can't straighten knee when hip flexed 90 degrees

72

Brudzinski's test

Meningismus (itis)
neck stiff - hip + knees flex when neck flexed

73

Penile cancer from

HPV

74

Ballantitis

inflammation of head of penis

75

Phimosis

inability to retract foreskin

76

Paraphimosis

inability to reduce unretractable foreskin

77

Guaiac stool started at age

50

78

Penile lesion painfulness

Chanchroid - pain
Herpes - pain
Syphilis - NO PAIN

79

Testicular cancer presentation

age 15-34
swelling
back ache/gynecomastia/heavy scrotum

80

hydrocele

fluid in tunica vaginalis
NO PAIN
transilluminates

81

orchitis

Pain
no translumination

82

Spermatocele

cystic mass in testicle

83

Varicocele

dilation of spermatic cord veins due to incompetent valves

84

testicular torsion

w/ bell clapper deformity, confused for epididimytis

85

Epididimytis

backflow of organism up vas deferens

86

Phren's sign

epididimytis
lift balls, feel better

87

Scrotal edema

Scrotal and penile swelling , finger imprint

88

Direct hernia

men over 40
NO PAIN
there many years
No scrotal mass
SIDE of finger

89

Indirect hernia

Most common
NO PAIN
Scrotal mass
TIP of finger