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Flashcards in Neuro First Aid Pharm Deck (130)
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1

Mech: Opioid agonist. Open K+ channels, close Ca2+ channels; decreases synpatic transmission thus decreasing release of Ach, NE, 5-HT, glutamate, substance P.

Opioid Analgesics (Morphine, Fentanyl, Codeine, Heroin, Methadone, Meperidine, Dextromethorphan, Diphenoxylate, Loperamide)

2

SE: Respiratory depression, miosis, CNS depression (additive with other drugs), constipation, addiction. Tolerance doesn't develop to miosis and constipation. Treat overdose with naloxone. Increases ICP, contraindicate with head trauma.

Morphine, Fentanyl, Codeine, Heroin, Methadone, Meperidine, Dextromethorphan, Diphenoxylate, Loperamide side effects?

3

Opioids

Morphine, Fentanyl, Codeine, Heroin, Methadone, Meperidine, Dextromethorphan, Diphenoxylate

4

Used for Diarrhea

Loperamide and diphenoxylate

5

Long lasting opioid agonist.

Methadone

6

Cough suppressant, analgesic.

Codeine

7

Abused as a halucinogen. Cough suppressant.

Dextromethorphan

8

Mech: Partial agonist at opioid mu receptors; agonist at kappa receptors.

Butorphanol

9

Very weak opioid agonist; inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake.

Tramadol

10

Maintenance programs for addicts.

Methadone uses?

11

Inhibits voltage-gated sodium channel activation (doesn't block pores).

Carbamazepine

12

Mech: Inhibits thalamic T-type calcium channels

Ethosuximide

13

SE include GI distress, fatigue, headache, urticaria, Steven-Johnson syndrome

Ethosuximide

14

Used for Severe Pain (migraine, labor, etc). Causes less resp depression than full opioids.

Butorphanol.

14

SE include Sedation, tolerance, dependence, induction of cytochrome P-450, additive respiratory depression with alcohol. Contraindicate with porphyria because of P-450 induction

Barbituates

15

Less respiratory depression than full agonists; induces withdrawal if on a full opioid agonist (higher affinity, less effect).

Butorphanol side effects?

16

Used for Status epilepticus, tonic-clonic seizures. Class IB antiarrhythmic.

Phenytoin

18

Used for Chronic pain.

Tramadol uses?

18

Decreases seizure thresholds; similar to opioids.

Tramadol side effects?

19

Used for Tonic-clonic seizures, absence seizures. Bipolar disorder.

Valproic acid

20

Mech: Blocks voltage-gated sodium channels and glutamate receptors.

Lamotrigine, felbamate

21

Trigeminal neuralgia, tonic-clonic seziures.

Carbamazepine uses?

22

Diplopia, ataxia, blood dyscrasias (agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia), liver toxicity, teratogenesis, induction of cytochrome P-450, SIADH, Stevens-Johnson syndrome. NTD in pregnancy.

Carbamazepine side effects?

23

Mech: GABA analog; inhibits HVA calcium channels.

Gabapentin

24

Absence seizures; ineffective for other types.

Ethosuximide uses?

26

Mech: Blocks sodium channels and increases GABA action.

Topiramate

27

GABA(A) agonist that increases DURATION of Cl- channel opening, thus decreasing neuron firing.

Barbituates mechanism of action?

27

First line antiepileptic in children and pregnant women. Rapid anesthesia induction.

Barbituates uses?

28

Use-dependent blockade of voltage-gated Na+ channels; increases refractory period; inhibition of glutamate release from excitatory presynaptic neuron.

Phenytoin mechanism of action?

29

Sedation, mental dulling, kidney stones, weight loss. Inhibits CYP-450.

Topiramate