Flashcards in Neuro First Aid Pharm Deck (130)
Mech: Opioid agonist. Open K+ channels, close Ca2+ channels; decreases synpatic transmission thus decreasing release of Ach, NE, 5-HT, glutamate, substance P.
Opioid Analgesics (Morphine, Fentanyl, Codeine, Heroin, Methadone, Meperidine, Dextromethorphan, Diphenoxylate, Loperamide)
SE: Respiratory depression, miosis, CNS depression (additive with other drugs), constipation, addiction. Tolerance doesn't develop to miosis and constipation. Treat overdose with naloxone. Increases ICP, contraindicate with head trauma.
Morphine, Fentanyl, Codeine, Heroin, Methadone, Meperidine, Dextromethorphan, Diphenoxylate, Loperamide side effects?
Morphine, Fentanyl, Codeine, Heroin, Methadone, Meperidine, Dextromethorphan, Diphenoxylate
Used for Diarrhea
Loperamide and diphenoxylate
Long lasting opioid agonist.
Cough suppressant, analgesic.
Abused as a halucinogen. Cough suppressant.
Mech: Partial agonist at opioid mu receptors; agonist at kappa receptors.
Very weak opioid agonist; inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake.
Maintenance programs for addicts.
Inhibits voltage-gated sodium channel activation (doesn't block pores).
Mech: Inhibits thalamic T-type calcium channels
SE include GI distress, fatigue, headache, urticaria, Steven-Johnson syndrome
Used for Severe Pain (migraine, labor, etc). Causes less resp depression than full opioids.
SE include Sedation, tolerance, dependence, induction of cytochrome P-450, additive respiratory depression with alcohol. Contraindicate with porphyria because of P-450 induction
Less respiratory depression than full agonists; induces withdrawal if on a full opioid agonist (higher affinity, less effect).
Butorphanol side effects?
Used for Status epilepticus, tonic-clonic seizures. Class IB antiarrhythmic.
Used for Chronic pain.
Decreases seizure thresholds; similar to opioids.
Tramadol side effects?
Used for Tonic-clonic seizures, absence seizures. Bipolar disorder.
Mech: Blocks voltage-gated sodium channels and glutamate receptors.
Trigeminal neuralgia, tonic-clonic seziures.
Diplopia, ataxia, blood dyscrasias (agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia), liver toxicity, teratogenesis, induction of cytochrome P-450, SIADH, Stevens-Johnson syndrome. NTD in pregnancy.
Carbamazepine side effects?
Mech: GABA analog; inhibits HVA calcium channels.
Absence seizures; ineffective for other types.
Mech: Blocks sodium channels and increases GABA action.
GABA(A) agonist that increases DURATION of Cl- channel opening, thus decreasing neuron firing.
Barbituates mechanism of action?
First line antiepileptic in children and pregnant women. Rapid anesthesia induction.
Use-dependent blockade of voltage-gated Na+ channels; increases refractory period; inhibition of glutamate release from excitatory presynaptic neuron.
Phenytoin mechanism of action?