Neuro - Pharmacology (Glaucoma drugs) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuro - Pharmacology (Glaucoma drugs) Deck (20):
1

In general, what is the goal of Glaucoma drugs, and how is it accomplished?

Decrease IOP via decreasing amount of aqueous humor (inhibit synthesis/secretion or increase drainage)

2

Name 2 Glaucoma drugs that act as alpha-agonists.

Alpha-agonists: (1) Epinephrine (2) Brimonidine (alpha2)

3

Name 3 Glaucoma drugs that act as Beta-blockers.

Beta-blockers: (1) Timolol (2) Betaxolol (3) Carteolol

4

Name a Glaucoma drug that acts as a diuretic.

Diuretics: Acetazolamide

5

What are the categories of Glaucoma drugs that act as Cholinomimetics? Give 2 examples in each category.

DIRECT (pilocarpine, carbachol); INDIRECT (physostigmine, echotiophate)

6

Name a Glaucoma drug that acts as a prostaglandin. What kind of analog is it?

Latanoprost (PGF2alpha)

7

What kind of drug is Epinephrine, and what is its mechanism as a Glaucoma drug?

Alpha-agonist; Decrease aqueous humor synthesis via vasoconstriction

8

What is a side effect of using Epinephrine as a Glaucoma drug? In what context should it not be used?

Mydriasis; Do not use in closed-angle glaucoma

9

What kind of drug is Brimonidine, and what is its mechanism as a Glaucoma drug?

Alpha2-agonist; Decrease aqueous humor synthesis

10

What are 5 side effects of using Brimonidine as a Glaucoma drug?

(1) Blurry vision, (2) ocular hyperemia, (3) foreign body sensation, (4) ocular allergic reactions, (5) ocular pruritus

11

Again, what are 3 Beta-blockers that can be used as Glaucoma drugs? What is their mechanism?

(1) Timolol (2) Betaxolol (3) Carteolol; Decrease aqueous humor synthesis

12

What side effects are associated with Beta-Blockers used as Glaucoma drugs (i.e., Timolol, Betaxolol, Carteolol)?

No pupillary or vision changes

13

Again, what is a diuretic that can be used as a Glaucoma drug? What is its mechanism?

Acetazolamide; Decreases aqueous humor synthesis via inhibition of carbonic anhydrase

14

What side effects are associated with Acetazolamide used as Glaucoma drugs?

No pupillary or vision changes

15

What are 2 examples of direct cholinomimetics used as Glaucoma drugs? What is their mechanism?

Pilocarpine, Carachol; Increase outflow of aqueous humor via contraction of ciliary muscle and opening of trabecular meshwork

16

What 2 side effects are associated with direct cholinomimetics used as Glaucoma drugs (i.e., pilocarpine, carbachol)?

Miosis and cycloplasm (contraction of ciliary muscle)

17

What are 2 examples of indirect cholinomimetics used as Glaucoma drugs? What is their mechanism?

Physostigmine, Echothiopate; Increase outflow of aqueous humor via contraction of ciliary muscle and opening of trabecular meshwork

18

Which cholinomimetic is used as Glaucoma drug in emergencies, and why?

Use pilocarpine in emergencies - very effective at opening meshwork into canal of Schlemm

19

What is the prostaglandin used as a Glaucoma drug? What is its mechanism?

Latanoprost (PGF2alpha); Increase outflow of aqueous humor

20

What is the side effect of Latanoprost (PGFalpha2) when used as a Glaucoma drug?

Darkens color of iris (browning)

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