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3rd year_Neurology > Neuroanatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuroanatomy Deck (56):
1

Bone just anterior to Pons & Medulla?

Clivus

2

Pituitary fossa is bound by the Anterior & Posterior ______ Processes.

Clinoid

3

Ventricle that sits just posterior to Pons & anterior to Cerebellum?

4th Ventricle

4

Ventricular space btwn 3rd & 4th ventricles?

Cerebral Aqueduct (of Sylvius)

5

Glossopharyngeal Nerve main functions?

- Stylopharyngeus muscle (Branchial Motor)

- Parasympathetics to Parotid gland

- Sensation from post 1/3 tongue, pharynx, middle ear & region near external auditory meatus

- Taste from post 1/3 tongue
- Chemo- & Baro-receptors of Carotid body

6

Vagus Nerve main functions?

- Pharyngeal muscles (swallowing)
- Laryngeal muscles (voice)

- Parasympathetics to heart, lungs, & digestive tract until splenic flexure

- Sensation from Pharynx, Meninges, & small region near external auditory meatus

- Taste from Epiglottus & Pharynx
- Chemo- & Baro-receptors of Aortic Arch

7

Facial Nerve main functions?

- Muscles of facial expression
- Stapedius (middle ear muscle, "S") muscle
- Digastric muscle

- Taste (ant. 2/3)

- Parasympathetics to Lacrimal glands & Submandibular, Submaxillary, & all other salivary glands except parotid

- Sensation from small region near EAM

8

Oculomotor Nerve functions?

- Eye movements
- Pupil constriction

9

Most anterior structure of the Medulla?

Pyramids (w/ pyramidal decussation)

10

2 pairs of bumps on the dorsal surface of Midbrain?

Superior Colliculi & Inferior Colliculi

- together, these form the "tectum" (meaning roof) of the midbrain

11

What structures form the "Tectum" of the Midbrain?

Superior & Inferior Colliculi

(Tectum = Roof)

12

What structure form the ventral surface of the midbrain?

Cerebral Peduncles -- w/ the Interpeduncular Fossa separating them

(contain CST & CB fibers among others)
("fossa" = shallow depression or hollow)

13

In the Medulla, what structures lie just lateral (& a bit posterior) to the Pyramids? Is this in the rostral medulla, caudal medulla, or both?

Inferior Olivary Nuclei (Olives)

Rostral Medulla only

14

Where are the Medial & Lateral Geniculate Nuclei w/ respect to the Brainstem?

Just Superior-Lateral to the Midbrain
- Inferior to the Thalamus

15

Caudally, the 4th ventricle empties into the __a__ via the __b__ laterally & the __c__ medially.

a) Subarachnoid space
b) Foramina of Luschka (lateral)
c) Foramina of Magendie (midline)

16

Which CN emerges ventrally from the interpeduncular fossa of the midbrain?

Oculomotor Nerve

(nucleus is located just anterior to cerebral aqueduct)

17

Where does the hypoglossal nerve exit the brainstem? (between what 2 structures?)

Exits the Medulla ventrally, between the pyramids & inferior olivary nuclei

18

a) CN 7 exits the cranial cavity via what hole?

b) It then exits the skull to reach muscles of facial expression via what?

a) Internal auditory meatus

b) Stylomastoid foramen

19

CN 8 exits the cranial cavity via what hole?

Internal auditory meatus

20

CN 4 functions?

Superior Oblique muscle

21

CN 6 functions?

Lateral Rectus muscle

22

CN 3 functions?

- Motor to Levator Palpebrae Superior & all extraocular muscles except SO & LR

- Parasympathetics to pupil constrictor & ciliary muscles for near vision

23

CN 5 functions?

- Sensation of touch, pain, temp, joint position, & vibration for face, mouth, ant. 2/3 tongue, nasal sinuses, & meninges

- Muscles of mastication & Tensor Tympani muscle (middle ear muscle, "T")

24

(VPL) Ventral Posterior Lateral Thalamic Nucleus:
- receives what type of inputs & from where?

Posterior Column Nuclei -- via Medial Lemniscus -- Fine touch & proprioception (body)

Dorsal Horn -- via Spinothalamic tract -- Crude touch, pain, temperature (body)

25

(VPM) Ventral Posterior Medial Thalamic Nucleus:
- receives what type of inputs & from where?

Trigeminal Sensory Nucleus -- via Trigeminal Lemniscus -- Fine touch, dental pressure (face)

Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus -- via Trigeminothalamic tract -- Crude touch, pain, temperature (face)

26

Sympathetic Ganglia span which spinal segments?

T1 - L2 (or 3)

27

Parasympathetic nerves arise from CNs & which spinal segments?

S2 - S4

28

What superficially separates the cerebral hemispheres?

Longitudinal Fissure

29

Large C-shaped band of white matter that connects homologous areas of the 2 cerebral hemispheres

Corpus Callosum
(rostrum, genu, body, & splenium)

30

What structure surrounds the Corpus Callosum?

Cingulate Gyrus

31

Structures on the anterior border of the 4th ventricle?

- Facial Colliculus
- Hypoglossal Trigone
- Vagal Trigone

(superior to inferior)

32

Where does the SC gets its blood supply from?

Anterior Spinal Artery running along ventral midline
&
Posterior Spinal Arteries running along right & left dorsal surface

33

Spinal nerve root?
Biceps

C5, 6

34

Spinal nerve root?
Brachioradialis

C6

35

Spinal nerve root?
Triceps

C7

36

Spinal nerve root?
Patellar

L4

37

Spinal nerve root?
Achilles Tendon

S1

38

Spinal nerve root?
Abdominal cutaneous reflexes ABOVE umbilicus

T8-10

39

Spinal nerve root?
Abdominal cutaneous reflexes BELOW umbilicus

T10-12

40

Spinal nerve root?
Cremasteric reflex

L1-L2

41

Spinal nerve root?
Bulbocavernous reflex

S2-4

42

Spinal nerve root?
Anal wink

S4

43

The Middle Meningeal Artery enters the skull through the ________ & runs in the ______ space.

- Foramen spinosum
- Epidural

44

Which venous sinus runs horizontally across the posterior skull?

Transverse Sinus

(they meet & travel superiorly along posterior midline as the Superior Sagittal Sinus)

45

What is the space called that connects the lateral ventricles to the 3rd ventricle?

Foramen of Monroe

46

Normal volume of CSF in an adult?

150 cc

47

What are Cisterns?

Areas where the subarachnoid space widens to form larger CSF collections

48

What is the Cistern just inferior to the anterior aspect of the Cerebellum?

Cisterna Magna

49

What is the Cistern that sits anterior to the Midbrain?

Interpeduncular Cistern (also "fossa")

50

What is the Cistern that sits anterior to the Pons?

Prepontine Cistern

51

In which Cistern is the Cauda Equina?

Lumbar Cistern

52

What is Cushing's Triad? What does it signify?

- HTN, bradycardia, & irregular respirations
- classic sign of elevated ICP

53

Normal adult ICP?

Less than 15 mmHg
(or 20 cm H2O)

54

Where do the vertebral arteries branch from?

They are branches of the Subclavian arteries

55

Through what opening do the Vertebral arteries enter the skull?

Foramen Magnum

56

Red nuclei -- location?

Rostral Midbrain, just dorsal to Substantia Nigra

-- Anterior & lateral to CN3 nuclei
-- Posterior & medial to Cerebral peduncles