Neurological Weakness Flashcards Preview

Human Disease > Neurological Weakness > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurological Weakness Deck (43):
1

Name 6 diseases/conditions that cause neurological weakness

- stroke
- tumour
- Bell's palsy
- multiple sclerosis
- motor neurone disease
- myasthenia gravis

2

Which part of brain is responsible for motor function?

prefrontal cortex

3

Describe three parts of motor neuron

- upper motor neuron
- lower motor neuron
- NMJ

4

Where is upper motor neuron (start / end)?

- in the CNS
- start = cell bodies in motor prefrontal cortex
- via = internal capsule
- end = nucleus in brain stem

5

Where is lower motor neuron (start / end)?

- outside CNS
- start = brain stem
- end = NMJ

6

Is the lower motor neuron of hypoglossal nerve inside / outside CNS?

Outside.
Only upper motor neuron is inside CNS

7

What are 4 sets of facial muscles?

- face, mouth
- jaw, chewing
- tongue
- swallowing, speech

8

What motor nerves innervate 4 sets of muscles?

face, mouth
- VII (facial n)
jaw, chewing
- V (trigeminal n)
tongue
- XII (hypoglossal n)
swallowing, speech
- X (vagus n)
- (IX glossophyngeal n = sensory)

9

What are the clinical tests for each of 4 sets of muscles?

face, mouth
- SMILE
jaw, chewing
- OPEN MOUTH
tongue
- STICK OUT TONGUE
- LISTEN TO SPEECH
swallowing, speech
- COUGH
- SAY 'AHHH'
- SWALLOW
- LISTEN TO SPEECH
- CAN YOU FEEL THIS? (glossopharyngeal n)

10

If issue with jaw muscles, does jaw point towards / away from weak side?

Jaw points TOWARDS weak side
(think - same as tongue)
side that opens more causes deviation

11

If issue with tongue muscles, does tongue point towards / away from weak side?

Tongue points TOWARDS weak side

12

If issue with swallowing muscles, does uvula point towards / away from weak side?

Uvula points AWAY from weak side

13

What is most common nerve to cause issues in the face?

Facial n. (VII)

14

What are 2 main types of weakness?

1. Weakness of one side of face

2. Weakness of tongue / swallowing / speech m.m.
- usually bilateral

15

What are the diseases that affect upper motor neurones?

- stroke
- tumour (also lower)
- motor neuron disease (also lower)
- multiple sclerosis (also lower)

16

Which diseases affect lower motor neurones?

- Bell's palsy
- motor neuron disease (also upper)
- multiple sclerosis (also upper)

17

Which disease affects the motor neuron junction?

myasthenia gravis

18

What do motor neuron disease and myasthenia gravis have in common?

- affect neurons
- diffuse, bilateral symptoms
- (can) affects all muscles

19

What is multiple sclerosis?

Multiple patches of inflam along neurons, resulting in scarring (sclerosis)
- often in brain and brain stem.
- When symptoms begin - often unilateral
- later stages in disease = increase in scarring - therefore symptoms usually bilateral (can be symmetrical)

20

What is myasthenia gravis?

- autoimmune disorder
- antibodies against cells at NMJ

21

What is motor neuron disease?

- progressive disease
- U & L motor neurons affected

22

Where do tumours affect in neuron issues?

U or L motor neuron - depends where tumour is

23

Which disease(s) affects both upper and lower motor neurons?

- motor neuron disease
- (multiple sclerosis) - usually in brain/brain stem

24

Which diseases have diffuse and bilateral symptoms?

- motor neuron disease
- myasthenia gravis
- (multiple sclerosis)

25

If one side of face is affected - what are possible diseases?

- stroke
- tumour
- multiple sclerosis
- Bell's palsy

26

Which types of diseases get symptoms in:
1. mins - hours
2. hours - days
3. days - weeks
4. weeks - months

1. mins - hours
- vascular
- eg stroke
2. hours - days
- inflam, immune, infection
- eg multiple sclerosis (inflam), myasthenia gravis (immune), Bell's palsy (immune/infection)
3. days - weeks
- tumour
4. weeks - months
- degenerative
- eg motor neuron disease, Parkinsons, alzheimer's

27

What disease exception is there with regards to time taken for symptoms to show?

TB is an infection, but takes years to show symptoms
(not hours - days)

28

How long for symptoms to show in multiple sclerosis?

hours - days

29

How long for symptoms to show in tumour?

days - weeks

30

How long for symptoms to show in stoke?

mins - hours

31

How long for symptoms to show in myasthenia gravis?

hours - days

32

How long for symptoms to show in Bell's palsy?

hours - days

33

How long for symptoms to show in motor neuron disease?

months - years

34

What is likely cause if:
- one side of face affected
- bottom half only

- stroke
- tumour
- ie UPPER motor neuron

35

What is likely cause if:
- whole side of one side of face affected?

- Bell's palsy
- LOWER motor neuron

36

What is bulbar palsy?

- jaw, chewing, tongue, swallowing, speech affected
- symmetrical
- bilateral

37

Is bulbar palsy unilateral or bilateral?

bilateral

38

What causes bulbar palsy?

- motor neuron disease
- myasthenia gravis

39

What are common symptoms for myasthenia gravis?

- can't stick tongue out far / weak tongue
- slurred speech
- eyes - double vision when looking L / R
- hard to move eyes L / R
- eyelids droop (bilateral)
- eyes are usually affected (both eyes)

40

What are differences in symptoms between myasthenia gravis and motor neuron disease?

myasthenia gravis
- affects the eyes
- symptom onset hours-days

motor neuron disease
- rarely affects eyes
- symptom onset months - years

41

Does multiple sclerosis have unilateral or bilateral effects?

- When symptoms begin - often unilateral
- later stages in disease = increase in scarring - therefore symptoms usually bilateral (can be symmetrical)

42

Which diseases can affect the jaw, chewing, tongue, swallowing, speech?

- myasthenia gravis
- motor neuron disease
- multiple sclerosis

43

Which disease can affect:
jaw, chewing, tongue, swallowing, speech
AND
one side of face?

multiple sclerosis