Flashcards in Neurology Deck (25):
Inability to control facial movements. Patients experience difficulty chewing and swallowing, have increased reflexes and spasticity in tongue and the bulbar region, and demonstrate slurred speech, sometimes also demonstrating uncontrolled emotional outbursts.
Sudden loss of muscle tone. Common in Narcolepsy. Can be treated with SNRI, TCA, or GHB (date rape drug).
Patients offer implausible explanations in a sincere, forthcoming, and typically jovial manner. Common in Wernicke-Korsakoff, Anton Sydrome, and anosognosia.
CAG of the huntington gene. Atrophy of the caudate and putamen
Lewy Body Dementia
Lewy bodies made of alpha-synuclein; No tremor, but masked facies, rigidity, bradykinesia; Visual hallucinations. Very sensitive to EPS from antipsychotics
Men in the 50s; Autosomal Dominant; Frontal and anterior temporal lobes are atrophic. Parietal is preserved; ACh levels are normal; Plaques and tangles are uncommon.
Varian ot FTD; Pick Bodies on silver stain
Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
Parkinsonism (without tremor); Axial rigidity (straight spine); Cannot look vertically and later to look laterally; Fall going down stairs; Masked face is more of a "startle" look
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
CSF can't be reabsorbed.; Dementia, urinary incontinence, and gait apraxia. Treat with shunt and they improve
Ophthalmoplegia, ataxis, and acute confusion; Retrograde and anterograde amnesia; Lack of B1
Treponema Pallidum (know what it looks like); RPR and VDRL
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis
Measles as a kid; Myoclonus is hallmark; Get CSF measles antibody titer; Cowdry bodies
Dementia and myoclunus; Die in 6 months to a year; Prior protein;
Can cause dementia; Borrelia burgdorferi;
Paucity of speech; Lesion in Broca's Area; Likely occlusion of the MCA;
Broca's Aphasia (nonfluent)
Can't repeat words but can understand words
Loss of comprehension and repetition;
Loss of comprehension, naming and repetition; Conversation is unintelligible; CVA in temporoparietal region;
Damage to arcuate fasciculus; Fluent and retain comprehension but can't repeat short sentences or phrases.
Cannot read but can understand speech; Can transcribe another person's dictation but then can't read what they wrote;
Inability to execute learned actions despite normal strength, sensation, and coordination;
Non-Dominant Hemisphere Syndrome
Ignores left side of their body.
Inability to acknowledge a physical deficit.