Neuroradiology + Embryology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuroradiology + Embryology Deck (14):
1

How do you distinguish a CT from MRI?

CT- (see teeth) bone is white, CSF is black

2

What neurological suspected pathology would require a CT scan?

Head Trauma
Acute Stroke
Headache (red flag for tumour/ subarachnoid)
Cancer (mets)
Post Surgical- hydrocephalus, Haemorrhage

3

What neurological presentation would be contraindicative to a CT?

GCS 15
No open/ depressed skull fracture
No CSF leakage
No panda eyes
<2 vomiting episodes
No amnesia
<65
Fall <1m
Seizure-MRI

4

What type of imaging shows white CSF?

T2 MRI

5

What does bone look like vs fat on an MRI?

Dark bone surrounded by white fat

6

What neurological suspected pathology would require an MRI scan?

Demyelination- MS
CNS tumours
Spine- IV disk prolapse
TIAs
Epilepsy
Paediatric Neurology
Headache- IC Hypertension
Cancer

7

What physical/ psychological complications would prevent a Pt from an MRI scan?

Implants- electronics, cardiac pacemakers, defibs, cochlear implants
Shunts
Insulin pumps
Moveable- Aneurysm clips, heart valves, recent intra-abdominal clips
Claustrophobia
Pregnancy
Tattoos

8

What is the purpose of an angiography?

Look for large vascular (arterial + venous) abnormalities
Aneurysm
Arterio-Venous Malformation
Carotid Cavernous Fistula
Unstoppable epistaxis (nosebleed)

9

What is the purpose of Ct perfusion?

See the volume of blood passing through a defined volume of tissue per unit of time
Look for strokes (Dec perfusion), Tumour (INc perfusion- angiogenesis, aggressive)

10

What is the purpose of a PET Scan?

Map out glucose usage (inc metabolism in tumour, inflammation + infection). useful after brain tumour resection for differentiating granulation tissue (low energy use) from leftover tumour (high energy use)

11

What embryological layer does the nervous system develop from?

Ectoderm

12

The 3 primary brain vesicles (forebrain, midbrain + hindbrain) develop into 5 secondary vesicles what are the adult derivatives of these?

1. Tiencephalon- Hemispheres, Hippocampus, Basal Ganglia
2. Diencephalon- Thalamus (+hypo), Pituitary, Pineal
3. Mesencephalon- Sup + Inf Colliculi
4. Metencephalon- cerebellum + pons
5. Myelncephalon- Medulla

13

What is the difference between gyrus + sulci? How are they formed?

Sulcus- Groove
Gyrus- Raised
Folds as a results of rapid growth to give more space

14

What are the 2 types of neural epithelial cells? How do they develop and what do they produce as a result?

Neuroepithelial Cells- pseudostratisfied epithelium- ependymal cells- Nuerones, Astrocytes (proteoplastic, fibrous), Oligiodentrycytes

Neural Crest Cells--migrate- between somites (=DRG); organs (sympathetic + parasympathetic ganglia); gut (enteric NS); meninges, adrenal medulla, facial bones + cartilage