Flashcards in Neurovasculature of the pelvis and perineum Deck (29):
What is the anatomical origin of the superior rectal artery?
Inferior mesenteric artery.
Describe the general vasculature of the perineum and pelvis, listing the exceptions.
Most of the pelvis and perineum are supplied by branches of the internal iliac artery, and drained by tributaries of the internal iliac vein. Exceptions are the gonads and the majority of the rectum.
What are the anatomical origins of the testicular and ovarian arteries?
Both are branches or the abdominal aorta.
How does blood reach the inferior vena cava from the ovarian and testicular veins?
the right testicular/ovarian vein generally joins the inferior vena cava; the left testicular/ovarian vein, unlike the right one, joins the left renal vein instead of the inferior vena cava.
Which branches usually arise from the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery, and what areas do they supply?
Supplies posterior pelvic wall and part of gluteal region. Iliolumbar a., Lateral sacral aa., Superior gluteal a.
Which branches usually arise from the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery?
Obturator a., Superior vesical a. (may be multiple aa), Umbilical a. (becomes medial umbilical ligament), Uterine and vaginal aa. (female) or Inferior vesical a. (male), Middle rectal a., Internal pudendal a., Inferior gluteal artery .
Describe the anatomical relationships of the superior and inferior gluteal arteries to the piriformis muscle and the sacral plexus.
Inferior gluteal usually exits the pelvis between S1-2 or more commonly S2-S3. It runs anterior to the piriformis m.
Superior gluteal exits above S1 and is posterior to the piriformis m.
How does the internal pudendal artery reach the perineum from the pelvis?
The internal pudendal artery runs in the pudendal canal (Alcock's canal).
Which branch of the internal pudendal a supplies the anal triangle?
Inferior rectal a. supplies the anal canal, from internal pudendal a. (from internal iliac a)
Which branches of the internal pudendal a supply the clitoris or penis and associated erectile tissues?
Dorsal and deep aa of penis / clitoris (erectile tissues)
How does blood return to the right atrium of the heart, via the portal route, and via the systemic (caval) route, from the portal-caval anastamoses in the inferior part of the rectum.
Mostly by superior rectal vein to inferior mesenteric vein to splenic vein (or sup mesenteric v) to hepatic portal vein. (portal route)
Middle rectal veins to internal iliac veins. Inferior rectal veins drain the anal canal to the internal pudendal vein to internal iliac vein (systemic route)
For example, lymph from the bladder will follow the blood vessels to which set of nodes? What is the alternative drainage?
Superior and inferior vesical arteries from internal iliac artery in males and the superior vesicle and vaginal arteries in females. Vesical venous plexus drains to the internal iliac veins but also anastomoses with veins of bony pelvis and to internal vertebral plexuses.
Bladder and prostatic lymphatics drain to the external (alternative) and internal iliac nodes.
To which sets of lymph nodes does lymph from the rectum and anal canal first drain?
follows the arteries; along superior rectal and inferior mesenteric aa. to inferior mesenteric nodes. Along middle rectal a. to internal iliac nodes or from anal canal to internal iliac nodes and superficial inguinal nodes.
The lymphatic drainage of the ovary, uterine tube, uterus and vagina are rather complex, draining initially to three sets of nodes – which?
Body of uterus, cervix, vagina to internal and external iliac nodes, part of fundus along round ligament through inguinal canal, to superficial inguinal nodes, superolateral uterus, uterine tube, ovary along suspensory ligament of ovary to lumbar nodes, lower vagina to superficial inguinal nodes
Major routes follow the arterial blood supply (see station 1), but one route follows the round ligament of the uterus.
Where does lymph from the testes drain?
lumbar and preaortic nodes, urethra and cavernous bodies to internal iliac and deep inguinal nodes.
How does lymph from the pelvis and perineum ultimately return to the bloodstream?
Where are the preganglionic parasympathetic neuron cell bodies, and how do their axons reach ganglia?
Parasympathetic fibers enter the pelvis in pelvic splanchnic nerves that originate from spinal cord levels S2 to S4.
What are the affects of PSNS innervation on the pelvis and perineum?
Causes engorgement of erectile tissues during sexual arousal (erection), and controls the smooth muscle of the bladder, rectum, and to some extent the female reproductive tract.
What are the affects of SNS innervation on the pelvis and perineum?
contraction of smooth muscles of the ductus deferens, seminal glands, and prostatic ducts during the emission phase of ejaculation.
Where are the preganglionic neuron cell bodies of the pelvic SNS, and how do their axons reach ganglia where synapses occur?
Sympathetic fibers enter the inferior hypogastric plexuses from the hypogastric nerves and from branches (sacral splanchnic nerves) of the upper sacral parts of the sympathetic trunk. Ultrimately, these nerves are derived from preganglionic fibers that leave the spinal cord in the anterior roots, mainly of T10 to L2.
Which spinal cord segments process afferent information from visceral organs? What do these fibers travel with?
Visceral afferent fibers follow the course of the sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers to the spinal cord.
Pain carried by PS nerves includes: the rectum (S2-S4), the inferior bladder (S2-S4), prostate (S2-3), cervix (S2-4).
Sympathtic includes: superior bladder (T12-L2/3), prostate (probably - T12-L2/3), fundus and body of vagina (T12-L2) and ovaries (T11-L1).
Which spinal nerve anterior rami contribute to the obturator nerve.
Which muscle compartment in the lower limb does the obturator nerve supply?
Medial compartment of the thigh
What does the sacral plexus form from?
The sacral plexus forms in the pelvic cavity from the ventral rami of spinal nerves L4- S4 (the small S5 & coccygeal (Co) nerves may be included as well). The lumbosacral trunk joins the sacral plexus from the lumbar region, and contains some axons from L4 ventral ramus and all L5 ventral ramus.
What are the major branches of the sacral plexus? Which spinal segments contribute to each?
The superior gluteal nerve (L4-S1)
The inferior gluteal nerve (L5-S2)
The sciatic nerve (L4-S3)
The pudendal nerve (S2-4)
What structures does the superior gluteal nerve innervate?
Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fascia latae
What structures does the inferior gluteal nerve innervate?
What structures does the sciatic nerve innervate?
Lateral rotator group (except piriformis and quadratus femoris) and the posterior compartment of thigh