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Flashcards in New English File Deck (65):


Collocation refers to how words go together or form fixed relationships.

heavy rain,
Not: thick rain

high temperature,
Not: tall temperature

scenic view, Not scenic picture

have an experience, Not do/make an experience

She has blonde hair.
Not: She has beige hair.

She was discharged from hospital.
Not: She was released from hospital.

Collocations may be strong or weak. Strong collocations are where the link between the two words is quite fixed and restricted. Weak collocations are where a word can collocate with many other words.



(of words and expressions) informal and more suitable for use in speech than in writing:
colloquial speech



an unpleasant fog that smells bad:

A miasma of pollution hung in the air above Mexico City.




to speak to someone angrily because you disapprove of their behaviour:

His mother scolded him for breaking her favourite vase.



​a thief with a weapon, especially one belonging to a group that attacks people travelling through the countryside

The Time Bandits:
the people(and situations)that waste our precious minutes and make life even more of a rush.


Savile Row

A street in London with many shops that sell expensive clothes for men that are often specially made for each person


Milk round

(in Britain) the job of going from house to house regularly delivering milk



to lie or sit enjoying the warmth especially of the sun:

We could see seals on the rocks, basking in the sun.



a person who is interested in modern technology and enjoys using it:

These are the top-ten gadget gifts under $50 for the technophile.


​ /ˈtek.nə.fəʊb/

someone who dislikes new technology, especially computers, and is not able to use it with confidence


(adjective)​ /təˈres.tri.əl/

(formal) relating to the earth

(of a planet) similar to Earth:
the search for terrestrial planets



(coming from) outside the planet Earth:
extraterrestrial beings



Person who works in a coffee bar


chiller cabinet

Large fridge where cold drinks are kept


knowledge worker

a person whose job involves handling or using information



Something that is gripping is so interesting or exciting that it holds your attention completely:

I found the book so gripping that I couldn't put it down.




beautiful, but in a sad way and often in a way that cannot be forgotten:
a haunting melody
the haunting beauty of Africa



difficult to believe, or unlikely:
The whole plot of the film is ridiculously implausible.



very interesting because of being unusual or mysterious:
an intriguing possibility/question
She has a really intriguing personality.



difficult to read or understand:
I liked the film but the book was rather heavy going.
I'm finding the advanced physics a bit heavy going.



developing or changing very quickly:
Companies such as these need to adapt constantly in fast-moving markets.
After working for some years in the hectic fast-moving world of City finance, she's now seeking a quieter way of life.



causing strong feelings of sadness or sympathy:
a very moving story
I find some of Brahms's music deeply moving.



making you think a lot about a subject:
a thought-provoking book/film



used to describe musical notes that are short and separate when played, or this way of playing music:
The music suddenly changed from a smooth melody to a staccato rhythm.
She played the whole piece staccato to improve her technique.

used to describe a noise or way of speaking that consists of a series of short and separate sounds:
She gave staccato replies to every question.



behaving strangely or in an anxious (= worried and nervous) way, often because you have a mental illness:
neurotic behaviour/tendencies
She's neurotic about her weight - she weighs herself three times a day.



Having a lot of money and a good standard of living



feeling angry because you have been forced to accept someone or something that you do not like:
a resentful look
She was resentful of anybody's attempts to interfere in her work.



someone who had a job or a position before someone else, or something that comes before another thing in time or in a series:

My predecessor worked in this job for twelve years.

The latest Ferrari is not only faster than its predecessors but also more comfortable.

Each new leader would blame his predecessor for all the evils of the past.

In her speech, she paid a glowing tribute to her predecessor.

She spoke scathingly of the poor standard of work done by her predecessor.

You need to learn from the mistakes of your predecessors.

This system is much more efficient than its predecessor.



a part of the story of a book or play that develops separately from the main story



_a book, film, or play that continues the story of a previous book, etc.:
I'm reading the sequel to "Gone with the Wind".

_an event that happens after and is the result of an earlier event:
There was a dramatic sequel to last Thursday's scandalous revelations when the minister suddenly announced his resignation.


​ /ˈpriː.kwəl/

a film, book, or play that develops the story of an earlier film, etc. by telling you what happened before the events in the first film, etc.:

Jean Rhys's novel "Wide Sargasso Sea" is a prequel to Charlotte Bronte's "Jane Eyre”.



Plural= millennia
a period of 1000 years


​ /ˈtrɪl.ə.dʒi/

a series of three books, plays, etc. written about the same situation or characters, forming a continuous story


​ /kənˈsaɪs/

short and clear, expressing what needs to be said without unnecessary words:
Make your answers clear and concise.


​ /fəˈren.zɪk/

related to scientific methods of solving crimes, involving examining the objects or substances that are involved in the crime:
forensic evidence/medicine/science
Forensic examination revealed a large quantity of poison in the dead man's stomach.



Property or sth valuable that you promise to give to sb if you cannot pay back money that you borrow



(C2 )to look carefully or with difficulty:
When no one answered the door, she peered through the window to see if anyone was there.
The driver was peering into the distance trying to read the road sign.

I peered through a chink in the curtains and saw them all inside.
They leaned over the rails and peered down into the dizzying chasm below.
We peered through the crack in the floorboards.
The car nosed out of the side street, its driver peering anxiously around.
She peered closely at the map.

(C1)a person who is the same age or has the same social position or the same abilities as other people in a group:
Do you think it's true that teenage girls are less self-confident than their male peers?
He wasn't a great scholar, but as a teacher he had few peers (= not as many people had the same ability as him).

in the UK, a person who has a high social position and any of a range of titles, including baron, earl, and duke, or a life peer:
a hereditary peer
a Conservative peer


​ /tʃɪŋk/

a small narrow crack or opening:
I peered through a chink in the curtains and saw them all inside.


​ /ˈkæz.əm/

_a very deep, narrow opening in rock, ice, or the ground:
They leaned over the rails and peered down into the dizzying chasm below.

_a very large difference between two opinions or groups of people:
There is still a vast economic chasm between developed and developing countries.


​ /ˈmaɪ.krəʊˌfaɪ.næns/

the activity or business of providing financial services to poor people or new businesses in poor countries:

Since 1976, microfinance programs have sprung up in developing nations around the world.


​ /sprɔːl/

to spread the arms and legs out carelessly and untidily while sitting or lying down:
I knocked into her in the corridor and sent her sprawling (= knocked her over).

to cover a large area of land with buildings that have been added at different times so that it looks untidy:
The refugee camps sprawl across the landscape.


​ /luːm/

to appear as a large, often frightening or unclear shape or object:
Dark storm clouds loomed on the horizon.

_(Cause worry)C2
If an unwanted or unpleasant event looms, it seems likely to happen soon and causes worry:
Her final exams are looming.
Here, too, the threat of unemployment has been looming on the horizon.
The threat of closure looms over the workforce.

_a piece of equipment for weaving (= making thread into cloth)

Idiom= loom large

C2 If something looms large, it becomes very important and often causes worry:
The issue of pay will loom large at this year's conference.


loom bands
noun [ plural ]

small, colourful rings of plastic, rubber, or silicone that can be joined together to make bracelets (= pieces of jewellery worn around the wrist) or other items



​to show pain suddenly and for a short time in the face, often moving the head back at the same time:
Did I hurt you? - I thought I saw you wince.
It makes me wince even thinking about eye operations.

noun [ C usually singular ]=
She gave a wince as the nurse put the needle in.



to write or draw something quickly or carelessly


​ /ɡeɪz/

​B2 to look at something or someone for a long time, especially in surprise or admiration, or because you are thinking about something else:
Annette gazed admiringly at Warren as he spoke.
He spends hours gazing out of the window when he should be working.
He gazed out over the emptiness of the moors.
He gazed at her, his eyes full of longing.
She gazed in admiration at his broad, muscular shoulders.
She was gazing out the window, rocking rhythmically to and fro.
The women sitting opposite us were gazing admiringly at baby Joe.

​noun(a singular noun)=
C2 a long look, usually of a particular kind:
a steady gaze
an innocent/admiring gaze
literary As I looked out, my gaze fell on a small child by the road.



_verb [ I or T ]​
to raise your shoulders and then lower them in order to say you do not know or are not interested:
"Where's Dad?" "How should I know?" replied my brother, shrugging.
He shrugged his shoulders as if to say that there was nothing he could do about it.
figurative Thousands of people are starving to death while the world shrugs its shoulders (= shows no interest or care).
She shrugged indifferently.
In reply to their questions, she just shrugged.
He shrugged and looked resigned.
You can't just shrug your shoulders and do nothing about the situation!
"What shall we do?" "Don't ask me," she said, shrugging her shoulders.

the action of raising and lowering your shoulders to express something:
"I'm afraid there's nothing I can do about your problem," she said with a shrug.
"Well, I guess we'll just have to do what he says," said Kim with a shrug of resignation.

_noun [ C ] (CLOTHES)
a short cardigan for women


Shrug something off

_ (not worry)to treat something as if it is not important or not a problem.

_(not keep)to get rid of something unpleasant that you don’t want.
I hope I can shrug off this cold before I go on holiday.


​ /ɡluːm/

_noun [ U ] (WITHOUT HOPE)
feelings of great unhappiness and loss of hope:
Bergman's films are often full of gloom and despair.
There is widespread gloom and doom about the company's future.

_noun [ U ] (DARKNESS)
literary a situation in which it is nearly dark and difficult to see well:
She peered into the gloom, but she couldn't see where the noise was coming from.
A figure emerged from the gloom of the corridor.


noun [C]

a pedicure (a beauty treatment for the feet and toenails) given to pets such as dogs


noun [C]

a dog that can help increase the profile of a brand or company through its presence and photos on social media sites


goat yoga
noun [U]
/ˈgəʊt .jəʊ.gə/

a type of yoga practised in the presence of live goats, who are encouraged to interact with the participants


​ /məˌtɪə.ri.əˈlɪs.tɪk/

C2 believing that having money and possessions is the most important thing in life


noun​ /pəˈzeʃ.ən/

_C2 [ U ] the fact that you have or own something:
The possession of large amounts of money does not ensure happiness.
formal I have in my possession a letter which may be of interest to you.
formal He was found in possession of explosives.

_B2 [ C usually plural ] something that you own or that you are carrying with you at a particular time:
Please remember to take all your personal possessions with you when you leave the aircraft.

_[ C usually plural ] a country that is ruled by another country:
a former overseas possession

_[ U ] in games such as football and rugby, the time when a team has control of the ball:
Wolves had a lot of possession but failed to score.
We need to keep possession of the ball to give ourselves a chance.

_ get/take possession of sth (specialised)
to start to use and control a building or piece of land that you may or may not own:
We've already bought the house but we won't take possession of it until May.

Police found a large quantity of drugs in his possession.
Her most cherished possession is a 1926 letter from F. Scott Fitzgerald.
She attaches a lot of importance to personal possessions.
Her photograph is among my most prized possessions.
This pen that my grandfather gave me is one of my most treasured possessions.


draw back

— phrasal verb with draw​ /drɔː/ verb drew, drawn

to move away from someone or something, usually because you are surprised or frightened:
She leaned forward to touch the dog but quickly drew back when she saw its teeth.


noun [ C ]​ /ˈdrɔː.bæk/

C1 a disadvantage or the negative part of a situation:
One of the drawbacks of living with someone is having to share a bathroom.


noun [ C or U ] ​ /ˈmer.ɪt/

_C1 formal the quality of being good and deserving praise:
an entertaining film with little artistic merit
Her ideas have merit.
Brierley's book has the merit of being both informative and readable.

_the merits of sth
​the advantages something has compared to something else:
We discussed the merits of herbal tea.

_on your (own) merits
​according to the qualities you have or have shown, without considering any other information or comparing you to someone else:
The committee will consider/judge each applicant on his or her own merits.

verb [ T ]​ /ˈmer.ɪt/ formal

C2 If something merits a particular treatment, it deserves or is considered important enough to be treated in that way:
This plan merits careful attention.
The accident merited only a small paragraph in the local paper.


verb [ I ]​ /ˈtʃʌk.əl/

to laugh quietly:
She was chuckling as she read the letter.


verb [ I ]​ /stuːp/

_to bend the top half of the body forward and down:
The doorway was so low that we had to stoop to go through it.
Something fell out of her coat pocket and she stooped down and picked it up.

_If someone stoops, their head and shoulders are always bent forwards and down:
He's over six feet tall, but the way he stoops makes him look shorter.

_ stooped
adjective​ /stuːpt/
She is small and slightly stooped.

_noun (STEPS)
[ C ] us a raised flat area in front of the door of a house, with steps leading up to it:
She got home to find the kids sitting on the stoop waiting for her.

_noun (BEND)
[ S ] a way of standing or walking with the head and shoulders bent slightly forwards and down:
He is a tall man with a slight stoop.


St John’s Wort

a plant with yellow flowers (hypericum perforatum)which has been used for centuries to treat mental disorders and nerve pain.



A substance that has no physical effects, given to patients who do not need medicine but think that they do, or when testing new drugs.


​ /ˈpʌm.əl/

_to hit someone or something repeatedly, especially with your fists (= closed hands):
The boxer had pummelled his opponent into submission by the end of the fourth round.

_(informal) to defeat someone easily at a sport:
They were pummelled in the second round.


​ /ˈprɪm.ɪ.tɪv/

_(C1 )relating to human society at a very early stage of development, with people living in a simple way without machines or a writing system:
Primitive races colonized these islands 2,000 years ago.
primitive man
The spiny anteater is a mammal, although a very primitive one.

_(C1) disapproving Primitive living conditions are basic, unpleasant, and uncomfortable:
Early settlers had to cope with very primitive living conditions.


​ /əˈstraɪd/

_(preposition) =
with a leg on each side of something:
She sat proudly astride her new motorbike.
figurative The town lies astride (= on either side of) the River Havel.

​with legs wide apart:
He stood there, legs astride.


verb [ T ] ​ /ˈstræd.əl/

_to sit or stand with your legs on either side of something:
He pulled on his helmet and straddled the motorbike.

_Something that straddles a line, such as a border or river, exists on each side of it or goes across it:
Our farm straddles the railway line.

_to combine different styles or subjects:
It's described as a new kind of dance music which straddles jazz and soul.

_(mainly US disapproving )to be unable to decide which of two opinions about a subject is better and so partly support both opinions:
It's not the first time this year that the president has been accused of straddling an issue.