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Flashcards in Newman CIS Deck (34)
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Baby girl has dry mucous membranes, had an episode of vomiting, and appears uncomfortable.... What enzyme is deficient?

21 hydroxylase
-you see virilization especially in girls
-this is why you really need to look at the genitals in a nursery


What do you do for the baby? What is going on?

-adrenal crisis
-so treat that first with...... Hydrocortisone!.. You can't deal with any kind of stress without cortisol
-fluids and steroids


What labs will the baby have?

-high K+
-low sodium... Due to low secretion of aldosterone
-along with the K+ you keep acid.... Acidosis (metabolic)
-BUN is high
-glucose is low because of the decrease in cortisol!


What do you order to confirm the diagnosis of CAH 21 hydroxylase deficiency?

17-OH progesterone level see
-that will build up because 21 usually breaks that down


What was in red on the primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease)?

-result in decreased production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and adrenal androgens, despite an increased concentration of ACTH***
-decrease in everything that the cortex makes


What is the most common cause of Addison disease in the US?

80% autoimmune***
-in the world, it's TB infection
-the X-linked recessive disorder of long chain FA metabolism (adrenaluekodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy).... The neuro deterioration may mimic multiple sclerosis
-Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage:: Waterhouse Fredericson syndrome


Adrenal dysgenesis ... What was in red on that?

-familial glucose iconic deficiency (autosomal recessive)


What is familial glucocorticoid deficiency

-isolated cortisol deficiency
-ACTH resistance due to mutations in the adrenal ACTH receptors.... Increased ACTH causes skin pigmentation (alpha-MSH is excreted along with ACTH)
-autosomal recessive



-21 deficiency is the most common
-deficiency of aldosterone(salt wasting)
-deficiency of cortisol
-excessive androgens (virilization of females)


What will femal infants with 21 deficiency have?

Virilization genitalia


Why do ppl who have adrenal insufficiency crave salt?

-because they keep losing all of it!


Lab findings in primary adrenal insufficiency

-low Na+
-high serum K
-fasting hypoglycemia
-hypercalcemia may be present
-low 8AM plasma cortisol accompanied by simultaneous significant elevation of the plasma ACTH


What is the confirmatory test for primary adrenal insufficiency?

Cosyntropin (synthetic ACTH) stimulation test


What is required for a diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency?

Elevated serum levels of 17-OH progesterone are required for diagnosis


Tx of primary adrenal insufficiency

-glucocorticoid replacement therapy: hydrocortisone, prednisone, prednisolone
-mineralocorticoid replacement therapy: fluorocarbons one


Secondary adrenal insufficiency

-low serum ACTH in the setting of low serum cortisol is the give away
-"alabaster skin"


What is Cushing disease?

-when there is Cushing syndrome due to an ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma


What is that one carcinoma that also secretes ACTH?

Small cell carcinoma of the lung


Where is the problem in ACTH independent Cushing syndrome?

The adrenals... It don't care about yo damn ACTH, it's going to do its thang anyways


What is the most common cause of ACTH-Indy Cushing syndrome?

-exogenous corticosteroid use
-adrenocortical tumor was also in red


Dexamethasone suppression test

-easiest screening test for Cushing syndrome
-tells us if it is ACTH dependent or independent
-give high dose of dexamethasone at night
-serum cortisol is drawn in the morning
-if cortisol is below a certain level, Cushing syndrome is excluded with some certainty


What is drawn before the dexamethasone is administered?

ACTH level!


Adrenal incidentalomas

-adrenal nodules discovered incidentally on abdominal CT or MRI
-----most are benign adrenal adenoma a


What do all patients with an adrenal incidentalomas require?

-testing for pheochromocytoma with plasma fractionated free metanephrines


Primary aldosteronism

-inappropriately high aldosterone secretion that does not suppress adequately with sodium loading
-they will be hypertensive (the resistant kind)


Conn syndrome

-primary aldosteronism secondary to a unilateral aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma
-40% have a mutation in a gene coding for the potassium channel


What is the most common cause of primary aldosteronism?

-unilateral or bilateral adrenal hyperplasia
-cardiovascular complications occur more frequently in hyperaldosteronism than in idiopathic hypertension***


When should we test for primary aldosteronism?

-in all hypertensive pts with: hypokalemia, treatment resistant htn, early onset htn, low-renin htn, htn with an adrenal mass, htn with fam hx of early onset htn or CVA< 40 yo, 1st degree relative with aldosteronism


What are pheochromocytomas and paraganglioma?

-both of them are tumors of the sympathetic nervous system
-para: malignant, secretes NE
-pheochromocytoma: secretes E... Usually fine


What genetic thing do we have to know about pheo's?

AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT-Von hipped-Lindau disease type 2
-hemangiomas and stuff like that