Nomenclature Flashcards Preview

Chemistry - Miss Dales > Nomenclature > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nomenclature Deck (18):
1

general formula

algebraic formula that describes any functional group
e.g. CnH2n+2 = alkanes

2

empirical formula

the simplest ratio of atoms of each element in a compound
e.g. C2H6 --> empirical = CH3

3

molecular formula

the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule
e.g. ethane = C2H6

4

structural formula

shows the order of atoms, carbon by carbon
e.g. C2H6 --> CH3CH3

5

skeletal formula

shows the bonds of the carbon chain only, and any functional groups attached. Carbon and Hydrogen aren't displayed.
e.g. /\/ ---> butane

6

displayed formula

shows how the arrangement of atoms and the bonds between them.
e.g. H H
H - C = C - H --> ethene
H H

7

functional group

the reactive part of the molecule
e.g. OH, COOH, C=C

8

homologous series

group of compounds that contain the same functional group, represented by the same general formula.
each successive member in a series differs by CH2.

9

functional group of alkanes

C-C and C-H bonds

10

functional group of alkenes

C=C

11

functional group of alcohols

OH

12

functional group of carboxylic acid

COOH

13

functional group of aldehydes

R
\
C = O
/
H

14

functional group of ketones

R
\
C = O
/
R

15

functional group of esters

O
II
C R
/ \ /
R O

16

functional group of nitriles

C (triple bond ) N

17

functional group of haloalkanes

C - x

x = any halogen

18

functional group of ethers

R - O - R