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Flashcards in Normal Flora Deck (17):
0

The human microbiome and human genome have how many genes?

Human microbiome has 1,000,000+
Human genome has 30,000

1

What does commenalism mean?

The microbe benefits with no harm to the host

2

What is colonization?

The microbe "moves in" to the host without causing disease

3

What is a carrier (reservoir) state?

Colonization with the potential for transmission to other people

4

In a mutualistic relationship, what are the three ways that the microbe benefits from a host?

Nutrient supply form consumed food and products from other bacteria
Variety of ecological niches to occupy
Complex but stable environment

5

Does the microbiome benefit its host by stimulating the immune system?

Yes

6

The microbiome benefits its host by promoting what?

Epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation

7

The microbiome benefits its host by degrading harmful compounds produced by what?

Other bacteria in the microbiome

8

The microbiome benefits its host by the production of what?

Essential nutrients for microbes, such as vitamins K and B12

9

Does the microbiome compete/interfere with pathogens?

Yes

10

Immune defects in germ-free mice include what? 5 things

Immature lymphoid follicles and small Peyer's patches
Reduced production of mucosal IgA
Reduced production of antimicrobial peptides
Reduced CD8+ intestinal epithelial cells and CD4+ T cells
Increased susceptibility to infection by enteric pathogens

11

What one potential benefit was seen in germ-free mice?

Lower body mass and fat composition

12

What is dysbiosis?

Perturbed balance within the microbiome (mainly intestinal) leading to aberrant immune responses and inflammation

13

What is a prebiotic?

Ingredients in food that remain undigested, and which may stimulate either the growth or the activity of bacteria that are also beneficial to human health

14

What is a synbiotic?

Combination of probiotic and prebiotic

15

Can normal flora be pathogenic? If so, when?

Yes if physical or immune defenses are breached

16

The majority of infections are form _________ _________ species

normal flora