Normocytic anaemia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Normocytic anaemia Deck (15):
1

Causes of normocytic anaemia

Aplastic anaemia
Haemolytic anaemia
Sickle cell anaemia

2

Causes of aplastic anaemia

Congenital aplasia
Chemo
HIV

3

Blood result abnormalities in aplastic anaemia

Pancytopenia
Low reticulocytes

4

Appearance of bone marrow in aplastic anaemia

Hypocellular
Increased fat

5

Categories of haemolytic anaemia

Extravascular - within reticuloendothelial system
Intravascular - within blood vessels

6

Causes of haemolytic anaemia

Hereditary spherocytosis/elliptocytosis
SCD/thalassaemia
Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
Transfusion reaction
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
Pyruvate kinase deficiency
Malaria
Quinine
Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome

7

Clinical features of haemolytic anaemia

Jaundice
Hepatosplenomegaly

8

Investigations for haemolytic anaemia

FBC
Reticulocytes
Bilirubin
Urine urobilinogen
Direct Coombs test - positive = autoimmune

9

Different types of haemoglobin and their component chains

HbF - 2 alpha and 2 gamma
HbA1 - 2 alpha and 2 beta
HbA2 - 2 alpha and 2 delta

10

Gene defect in sickle cell disease

A-T substitution leading to glutamate to valine substitution on beta globin chain

11

Clinical features of sickle cell disease

Jaundice
Splenomegaly
Microvascular occlusion - swollen hands and feet (dactylitis), mesenteric ischaemia, TIA
Priapism

12

What drug can raise HbF production in haemoglobinopathies

Hydroxycarbamide

13

Features of extravascular and intravascular haemolytic anaemia

Extra: splenomegaly

Intra: raised plasma Hb, haemoglobinuria (red/brown urine)

14

What prophylaxis should sickle cell patients receive

Pneumococcal vaccine due to splenic infarcts

15

Management for sickle cell crisis

Generous analgesia
Keep warm and hydrated
Group and cross match
Blood cultures to screen for sepsis - consider empiric ABx if fever or any lung symptoms
Blood transfusion if Hb falls sharply