Flashcards in Nuclear Chemistry Review Deck (50):
What is the strength of alpha radiation's penetrating power?
Low penetrating power.
What is the strength of beta radiation's penetrating power?
It has some penetrating power (not weak or strong).
What is the strength of gamma radiation's penetrating power?
High penetrating power.
How are alpha rays deflected on a charged field?
They curve in one direction when deflected.
How is beta radiation deflected in a charged field?
It's deflected in the opposite direction of an alpha particle.
How is gamma radiation deflected on a charged field?
It doesn't curve at all when deflected.
What is an alpha particle made from?
2 protons and 2 neutrons
What type of nucleus is an alpha particle?
A Helium nucleus.
Where is a beta particle released from?
Inside a radioactive nucleus
What happens to neutrons when beta particles are produced?
A neutron is split into 1 proton and 1 electron.
What is the charge of an alpha particle?
What is the charge of a beta particle?
What is the charge of a gamma particle?
It has no charge.
How can alpha radiation be stopped?
Sheet of paper
What can beta radiation be stopped?
What can gamma radiation be stopped?
Concrete or lead
What do beta particles do to neutrons?
They change them to protons.
What is half life?
The amount of time it takes half the atoms in radioactive sample to decay.
What is radioactive decay?
The process in which unstable atoms become more stable by emitting particles or/and electromagnetic radiation.
What are rays released from?
A radioactive nucleus.
What is transmutation?
The changing of one atom to another during radioactive decay.
What happens to particles that undergo alpha decay?
They turn into another element with an atomic number 2 less than before and a mass 4 less than before.
What is different about a more stable nucleus?
It has a longer half life.
What do gamma rays travel the same as?
The speed of light.
What happens in a chain reaction?
Products that start a new reaction are released.
How does charge determine atomic number in a beta particle?
The atomic number is raised by 1 if it's positive and lowered by 1 if it's negative.
What happens in gamma decay?
Unstable atomic nucleus spreads energy by gamma emission, producing gamma rays.
What happens in positron emission?
A proton is converted to a neutron by removing positron.
What happens in electron capture?
An inner orbital electron is captured by its own atom.
What is the symbol for alpha decay?
What is the symbol(s) for beta decay? Plus or minus?
0 B or 0 e
What is the symbol(s) for positron emission? Plus or minus?
0 B or 0 e
What is the symbol(s) for electron capture?
0 B or 0 e
What is the symbol for gamma decay?
What are gamma rays?
High energy electromagnetic waves, change from excited to ground state.
What do gamma rays produce and undergo?
They produce nuclear particles and undergo transitions.
When does gamma emission occur?
After gamma decay.
What happens to the nucleus in fission?
What kind of waste does nuclear fission release?
Where does nuclear fission take place?
In a nuclear power plant.
What happens to an atom that undergoes nuclear fission?
The atom splits into two parts and releases energy.
What happens to atoms that undergo nuclear fusion?
They combine together to form a single massive atom.
What type of waste does nuclear fusion release?
What does fusion require to occur?
It requires a lot of heat.
Where does nuclear fusion occur?
What are some similarities between nuclear fission and fusion?
1) Produce energy
3) Involve nuclei
4) Produce waste
What happens to mass in nuclear fission?
It changes from mass to energy.
What happens to mass in nuclear fusion?
Mass combines together
What is the bottom number in product/reactant equation?
The atomic number