# Number Flashcards

1
Q

Do infants demonstrate numerical equivalency?

A

yes

• babies pay attention to aspects of quantity
• correspondence about quantity across presentation modality
2
Q

What did Spelke’s study show?

A

that infants have numerical understanding as young as 5 months

-babies prefer to look longer at the image that matches the number of sounds

3
Q

know Wynn’s (1992) experiment

A
1. object placed in case
2. screen comes up
4. hand leaves empty

2 possible outcomes:

• possible outcome: screen drops revealing 2 objects
• impossible outcome: screen drops revealing 1 object
4
Q

describe alternative explanations, weakness in Wynn’s interpretation of results

A
• unexpected outcome vs initial learning
• not necessarily precise counting
• evidence may not be conclusive about ability to count, but it seems that infants pay attention to “quantity”
5
Q

What strategies do children use to add and subtract ?

A
• 4 to 5: fingers, retrieval from memory

6
Q

describe the results from Wynn (1992)

A

*children stare more at the impossible outcome

7
Q

three principles of counting

A

one-to-one, stable-order, cardinality

8
Q

one-to-one

A

there must be one and only one number name for each object counted

9
Q

stable-order

A

number names must always be counted in the same order

10
Q

cardinality

A

the last number name denotes the number of objects being counted

11
Q

are there cultural differences in children’s ability to count

A
• yes, some cultures emphasize math achievements while others on understanding of concepts vs procedures
• U.S. students lag behind students in most other industrialized nations, chiefly because of cultural differences in the time spent on schoolwork and homework and in parents’ attitudes toward school, effort, and ability.
12
Q

What kinds of strategies do children use to add and subtract? How do the kinds of strategies change over development?

A
• counting on their fingers (aloud)
• counting mentally
• retrieval from memory
13
Q

How do changes in information processing capacity influence numerical cognition?*

A

j

14
Q

What is the number line?

A
• give kids a line and say this is a line that goes from 1 to 10, now tell me where would you put a 2, 5, 8, 9
• kids leave more space in the first half of the line, then in the second half
15
Q

What are implicit theories about intelligence?

A
• entity theory

- incremental theory

16
Q

How does it apply to numerical cognitive achievement?

A

beliefs about intelligence affect math achievement

17
Q

What do the results of Blackwell et al., (2007tell us about implicit theories and mathematical achievement?

A

people with incremental beliefs about intelligence achieve better in math in comparison to people with entity beliefs

18
Q

entity theory of intelligence

A

belief that intelligence is something people are born with and can’t change

19
Q

Why and how has this concept been integrated in intervention programs (e.g., Siegher’s work)?

A

-for disadvantaged children, by introducing board games to improve numerical understanding

20
Q

number line study predicts

A

the extent to which children can distribute the numbers correctly on the line predicts their numerical understanding, competence in math