Flashcards in Nutrient Capture Deck (37):
Nutrients obtained from carbon dioxide and water:
Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
Nutrients obtained from soil macro-nutrients
N, K, Ca, Mg, P, S and Si
Nutrients obtained from soil micro-nutrients
Fe, B, Mn, Cl, Na, Zn, Cu, Ni and Mo
Nutrients that are part of carbon compounds
Nitrogen and sulfur
Nutrients that are important in energy storage or structural integrity
Phosphorous, silica and boron
Nutrients that remain in ionic form
K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Mn and Na
Nutrients that are involved in redox reactions
Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni and Mo
Soil __ affects nutrient availability in soils.
Which vessel is glucose carried in and how does it get there?
Phloem, actively pumped
Ways that root structure can adapt to low nutrient availability:
Proteiod roots (e.g. Lupinus albus) - low P
Extra lateral roots - low Fe
Relationships with fungi - rhizosphere
What do proteiod roots do?
Adaptation to low phosphate
Increase solubility of phosphorous in soil by secreting citric acid (down pH)
Rate of ion transport across membranes depends on:
size of molecule
magnitude of conc. gradient
viscosity of medium
Transport of ions across membranes, short distances:
Transport of ions across membranes, long-distance:
Pumps - solute
Symporters - 2 solutes in same direction
Antiporters - 2 solutes in opposite direction
Secondary active transport - e.g. active transport of proteins to drive active transport of other ions
How can you test whether active or passive transport?
Measure membrane potential and concentration of ion inside and outside of cell.
Symptom(s) of Ca Deficiency
New leaves misshapen or stunted
Existing leaves remain green
Symptom(s) of N Deficiency
Upper leave light green
Lower leaves yellow
Bottom leaves yellow and shrivelled
Symptom(s) of Zn Deficiency
Chlorosis between veins (yellowing of leaf tissue due to lack of chlorophyll)
Yellowing of tips and margins
Spreading grey-brown spots
Symptom(s) of P Deficiency
Leaves darker than normal
Loss of leaves
Symptom(s) of Fe Deficiency
Young leaves yellow/white with green veins
Mature leaves normal
Symptom(s) of K Deficiency
Yellowing of tips and edges (esp. in young leaves)
Dead or yellow patches or spots develop on leaves
Symptom(s) of Mn Deficiency
Yellow spots and/or elongated holes between veins
Symptom(s) of Mg Deficiency
Lower leaves turn yellow from edge inwards
Veins remain green
Routes for uptake of nutrients from rhizosphere
Where does nitrogen in the environment accumulate from?
What fixes atmospheric nitrogen (N2)?
How is nitrogen transported from the root to the xylem and phloem?
Which do plant roots prefer, NH4+ or NO3-?
What is the NH4+ transporter?
What is the NO3- transporter?
HATS and LATS
(high and low affinity transport systems)
In what forms in phosphorous available to plants?
PO3 3-, HPO3 2- and H2PO3-
What transports Pi in plants?
PH1 (high affinity), PHT2 and PH3
What is the importance of arbuscular mycirrhiza in Pi uptake?
Secretes phosphatases that mobilize Pi from rock sources of P
What is pumped from the roots to make Fe more soluble?
(Fe3+ + H+ -> Fe2+)
What carries Fe into the epidermis?
In what form is Fe take up by roots?