Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (11):
SCIENTFIC NAME: Retinoids
ACTIVE FORMS: Retinaldehyde/ retinoic acid
FUNCTIONS: (1) vision (particularly dim light) (2) critical in limb development
(3) aids in immune response
DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS/DISEASES: (1) night blindness (early sign) (2)dedifferentiation of epithelial cells and epithelial keratinization (3) Xerophthalmia cardinal signs of deficiency (early conjunctival xerosis, bitot's spots, keratomalacia)
TOXICITY SYMPTOMS: acute: nausea, gingiva (redness), vomiting/headache and peeling of skin. chronic: weight-loss, fever, bone tenderness, rash
SCIENTFIC NAME: Cholecalciferol
SYNTHESIS: In dermis and epidermis from cholesterol
ACTIVE FORMS vs CIRCULATING: active: 1,25-(OH)2-D3; circulating 25-OH-D3
FUNCTIONS: maintain serum calcium and phosphorus [ ]
DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS/DISEASES: rickets in kids; osteomalacia in adults. bowing of legs/arms. Elderly people and people of color are most at risk.
SCIENTFIC NAME: Tocopherols
FUNCTION: Antioxidant, vasodilator, decreases clotting
SCIENTFIC NAME: Phylloquinone
FUNCTIONS: Essential component of coagulation cascade. Co-factor for carboxylation and protein function
DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS/DISEASES/TREATMENT: Cardinal sign: bleeding, poor coagulation. Deficiency in newborns is significant and can cause immature liver. Vitamin K prophylaxis given at birth in most developed countries.
SCIENCTIFIC NAME: Thiamin
FUNCTION: Coenzyme for metabolism. Important rule in pyruvate dehydrogenase function.
DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS/DISEASE: Caused by inadequate intake or sever alcoholism. Can cause dry beriberi (neuromuscular issues), wet beriberi (cardiac issues + dry beriberi), cerebral beriberi (Wernicke's encephalothopy) or infantile beriberi (cardiac/neural issues).
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Riboflavin
DEFICIENCY SYMTPOMS: angular stomatitis, fluorescent yellow urine, non-specific signs and symptoms.
FUNCTION: Coenzyme for redox reactions. Needed for PDH function.
DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS/DISEASE: Pellegra. The 4 D's (diarrhea, dermatosis [cassal's necklace], dementia, and death)
B12 is also known as Cobalamin.
FUNCTIONS: folate - coenzymes for purine/pyrimidine synthesis. B12- coenzyme for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Together synthesize thymidylate.
THF is the major source for folate. B12 is needed for THF usage, or else folate is trapped in methylated form (Methyl Trap).
DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS/DISEASES: folic- megaloblastic anemia, ineffective hematopoiesis. B12- Pernicious anemia due to lack of intrinsic factor
Meat is the best source so vegans are at risk of deficiency.
You will see an increase in mevamalonyl acid.
B12 ABSORPTION: Absorbed in complex with IF in the distal ileum via receptor-mediated transport.
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Ascorbic acid
FUNCTIONS: Crosslinking of collagen; also used for reactions requiring reduced metal ion (iron or copper)
DEFCIENCY SYMPTOMS/DISEASE: scurvy (connective tissue defects, bleeding, gingiva)
FUNCTION: skeletal structure, messenger, stabilizes activity of many proteases and blood clotting enzymes
HOMESTATIC REGULATION: plasma calcium tightly regulated at 2.5 mM. Absorption is enhanced by vitamin D