Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (40):
provide energy and calories and dietary essential nutrients. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins.
Needed in less quantity and fulfill many functions. Vitamins and minerals.
Water soluble vitamins
Used to synthesize coenzymes
Growth and vision
Calcium metabolism and bone health
What are the lipid soluble vitamins?
Inorganic ions that are dissolved in the fluid compartments of the body (sodium, potassium, chloride)
Required in large quantities. Calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, iron, and sulfur.
Estimated Energy requirement
Average facility dietary intake require to maintain an energy balance.
Positive Caloric Balance
Weight gain, increase fat stores, lead to heart disease or T2 diabetes
Negative Caloric Balance
Weight loss. Decreased fat stores. Decrease ability to fight infections, lead to pneumonia or diarrhea.
Total Energy Expenditure
Consists of the:
1) Resting Metabolicrate
2) Diet induced thermogenesis
3) Energy cost of physical activity
Resting Metabolic Rate
Energy absorbed in a resting, postabsorptive state. Affected by age, gender, body temperature, and others. Increased in hyperthyroidism and decreases in hypothyroidism.
Rank the following according to metabolic rate: fat, organs, muscle
The energy required to digest, absorb, transport, and store food.
What is the assumed BMR for young people?
Allows the determination of the relative rate of utilization of carbohydrates and fats. Ratio of carbon dioxide output to oxygen usage.
What is the medical importance of dietary lipids?
Important for energy metabolism and storage of fat in human adipose tissue. Help to metabolize lipid soluble vitamins.
What is the medical importance of dietary fatty acids?
Membrane fluidity and precursor to eicosanoids. Omega-3 or omega-6
What are some types of eicosanoids?
Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes
What is the medical importance of dietary carbohydrates?
Glycemic Response and Index
Glycemic index is a relative ranking of carbohydrates in foods and how they affect blood glucose levels. The glycemic index measures the response
Low glycemic index foods
Slowly increase blood glucose, low maximum effect, sustain blood glucose levels longer
Adds bulk to food, absorbs water, and increases bowel motility. Makes you feel full.
what is the medical important of dietary proteins?
Provide amino acids which are used after absorption by many cells for protein synthesis
What are the essential amino acids?
PVT TIM HALL
Phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan isoleucine, methionine, histidine, arginine, leucine, lysine
What do children and pregnant women need more of, in regards to amino acids?
Arginine and histidine
How much nitrogen is in one gram of protein?
What is the main way of getting rid of nitrogen?
Urea in the urine
Positive Nitrogen balance
The nitrogen intake exceeds nitrogen excretion. Used for tissue growth
Negative Nitrogen Balance
Increased catabolism of tissue protein
Peptide hormone produced by the stomach under fasting conditions. Stimulates appetite.
Peptide hormone produced by the small intestine and stimulate satiety.
Peptide hormone produced by adipose tissue. Secreted in proportion with fat scores. decreases fat stores and increases energy expenditure.
Peptide hormone produced by the Beta cell of pancreas. Decreases appetite
Protein Energy Malnutrition
Most commonly seen in patients with medical conditions that have decreased appetite or altered digestion and absorption.
Deficiency of dietary proteins and dietary essential amino acids that results in deceased blood albumin and edema in the abdomen and legs. Disease of the displaced child.