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Exam 2 > Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (40):
1

Macronutrients

provide energy and calories and dietary essential nutrients. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins.

2

Micronutrients

Needed in less quantity and fulfill many functions. Vitamins and minerals.

3

Water soluble vitamins

Used to synthesize coenzymes

4

Vitamin A

Growth and vision

5

Vitamin D

Calcium metabolism and bone health

6

Vitamin E

Radical scavenging

7

Vitamin K

Blood clotting

8

What are the lipid soluble vitamins?

ADEK

9

Electrolytes

Inorganic ions that are dissolved in the fluid compartments of the body (sodium, potassium, chloride)

10

Minerals

Required in large quantities. Calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, iron, and sulfur.

11

Estimated Energy requirement

Average facility dietary intake require to maintain an energy balance.

12

Positive Caloric Balance

Weight gain, increase fat stores, lead to heart disease or T2 diabetes

13

Negative Caloric Balance

Weight loss. Decreased fat stores. Decrease ability to fight infections, lead to pneumonia or diarrhea.

14

Total Energy Expenditure

Consists of the:
1) Resting Metabolicrate
2) Diet induced thermogenesis
3) Energy cost of physical activity

15

Resting Metabolic Rate

Energy absorbed in a resting, postabsorptive state. Affected by age, gender, body temperature, and others. Increased in hyperthyroidism and decreases in hypothyroidism.

16

Rank the following according to metabolic rate: fat, organs, muscle

Organs-->Muscle-->Fat

17

Diet-Induced Thermogenesis

The energy required to digest, absorb, transport, and store food.

18

What is the assumed BMR for young people?

24 kcal/day/kg

19

Respiratory Quotient

Allows the determination of the relative rate of utilization of carbohydrates and fats. Ratio of carbon dioxide output to oxygen usage.

20

What is the medical importance of dietary lipids?

Important for energy metabolism and storage of fat in human adipose tissue. Help to metabolize lipid soluble vitamins.

21

What is the medical importance of dietary fatty acids?

Membrane fluidity and precursor to eicosanoids. Omega-3 or omega-6

22

What are some types of eicosanoids?

Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes

23

What is the medical importance of dietary carbohydrates?

Energy metabolism

24

Glycemic Response and Index

Glycemic index is a relative ranking of carbohydrates in foods and how they affect blood glucose levels. The glycemic index measures the response

25

Low glycemic index foods

Slowly increase blood glucose, low maximum effect, sustain blood glucose levels longer

26

Fiber

Adds bulk to food, absorbs water, and increases bowel motility. Makes you feel full.

27

what is the medical important of dietary proteins?

Provide amino acids which are used after absorption by many cells for protein synthesis

28

What are the essential amino acids?

PVT TIM HALL
Phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan isoleucine, methionine, histidine, arginine, leucine, lysine

29

What do children and pregnant women need more of, in regards to amino acids?

Arginine and histidine

30

How much nitrogen is in one gram of protein?

6.25 grams

31

What is the main way of getting rid of nitrogen?

Urea in the urine

32

Positive Nitrogen balance

The nitrogen intake exceeds nitrogen excretion. Used for tissue growth

33

Negative Nitrogen Balance

Increased catabolism of tissue protein

34

Gherlin

Peptide hormone produced by the stomach under fasting conditions. Stimulates appetite.

35

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

Peptide hormone produced by the small intestine and stimulate satiety.

36

Leptin

Peptide hormone produced by adipose tissue. Secreted in proportion with fat scores. decreases fat stores and increases energy expenditure.

37

Insulin

Peptide hormone produced by the Beta cell of pancreas. Decreases appetite

38

Protein Energy Malnutrition

Most commonly seen in patients with medical conditions that have decreased appetite or altered digestion and absorption.

39

Kwashiorkor

Deficiency of dietary proteins and dietary essential amino acids that results in deceased blood albumin and edema in the abdomen and legs. Disease of the displaced child.

40

Marasmus

Caused by severe undernourishment with deficiency in carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and other nutrient. Arrested growth, extremes tissue and muscle wasting, loss of fat, anemia, and loose skin folds. Can be found in the elderly.