NUTRITION Flashcards Preview

BIO DEATH #1 > NUTRITION > Flashcards

Flashcards in NUTRITION Deck (22)
Loading flashcards...
1

nutrients

substances we must have in our diet to survive.
water and food

2

opportunistic feeders

eat food outside of the norm if their preferred diet is unavailable

3

suspension feeders

take up nutrients from the water by moving
ex. whales

4

substrate feeders

eat and immediately defecate

5

fluid feeders

intake nutrients in liquids
ex. mosquitoes

6

bulk feeders

eat meals. most organisms do this.
ex. snakes, humans

7

3 nutrients needed

fuel
essential nutrients
biosynthetic materials

8

fuel

runs all the cellular processes of the body

9

essential nutrients

compounds needed to survive that we can not make from ANY food.
ex. vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids

10

biosynthetic material

organic raw materials to synthesize own molecules
ex. carbon skeletons; nitrogen

11

energy balance

energy intake=energy expenditure

12

negative energy balance

calories in< energy expenditure
weight loss

13

positive energy balance

calories in> energy expenditure
weight gain

14

malnourished

lacking one or more essential nutrients

15

undernourished

caloric deficiency

16

histidine

one extra amino acid in children

17

decrease in fatty acids can lead to

increased infections, scaly rash, decreased growth in children

18

fat soluble vitamins

A, D, E, K
stored in body fat. overconsumption more likely leads to toxicity

19

water soluble vitamins

excreted in urine.
B1, B2, niacin, B6, pantothenic acid, folic acid, B12, biotin, C

20

macrominerals

need more than 200 mg/day
calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulfer

21

trace minerals

need less than 200 mg/day
chromium, cobalt, copper, flourine, iodine, iron, magananse, molybdenum, nickel, slelenium, vanadium, zinc

22

specific hungers

if you are deficient in something you will subconsciously choose foods with that substance.
ex. rat with thiamine