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Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (133)
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1

Energy intake recommendation for men

2500kcal

2

Energy recommendation for women

2000kcal

3

Macronutrient example

Protein, carbs, total fat, alcohol

4

Protein average intake

88g men
64g women

5

What is fibre?

Carbs
Non starch polysaccharides, soluble and non soluble

6

Unhealthy fats

Saturated
Trans-fats
Increase LDL cholesterol in blood

7

Healthy fats

Mono and polyunsaturated (omega 3)

8

High fat

>5g saturates per 100g

9

Low fat

<1.5g saturates per 100g

10

Micronutrients

Vitamins and minerals essential for survival

11

Vitamin

Water soluble = vitamin C
Fat soluble = vitamin D

12

Minerals

Minerals and electrolytes = sodium
Trace elements = iron

13

Salt limit

6g salt a day
- currently = 8.1g

14

Which macronutrient provides the most energy?

Fats = 9kcal

15

Kwashiorkor vs. Marasmus

Look at year 2 PBL

16

Main oral diseases

Dental caries
Periodontal disease
Oral cancer
Dento-facial trauma

17

Most common oral disease affecting children and young people

Tooth decay

18

Dental caries

Tooth decay
Due to acids made by bacteria
Fermentable carbs
Low saliva flow and function

19

Protective factors against caries

Saliva
Fluoride
Antimicrobials

20

Preventing caries

- brushing twice dialy with fluoride toothpaste
- control diet sugars esp at bedtime
- provide procedures = fissure sealants and fluoride varnish
- frequency of dental attendance according to risk

21

Caries in developing countries

Decline as fluoride toothpaste

22

Caries in developing

Increasing as free sugar consumption and low access to fluoride

23

Caries fundamental shift

1970s
fluoride toothpaste after this

24

Sugar tax

2018 on soft drinks
Public Health Intervention
24p charge if contain 8g of sugar per 100ml
18p a L if 5-8g of sugar per 100ml
Not pure fruit juices as no added sugar
By manufacturers to HM Revenue and Customs

25

Impacts of Sugar Tax

- manufacturers re-formulating drinks
- tax contributing to support for sports in schools

26

What does oral health depend on?

Controlling consumption of free sugars, tobacco & alcohol via healthy diet, brushing x2 daily with fluoridated toothpaste
Not smoking

27

WHO recommendation on sugars

2015
No more than 5% of total energy

28

Opportunistic Pathogens

Found in healthy hosts
Reservoir
Take advantage of an opportunity
Commensals = staph, strep
Cannot infect healthy
Do not make people infectious
Do not cause epidemics

29

Obligate Pathogens

No environmental reservoir
Must cause disease
Transmitted
Infect healthy
Make people infectious
Cause epidemic

30

Ebola

fruit bats