Nutrition assessment-part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nutrition assessment-part 1 Deck (19):
1

What is the difference between nutritional screening and nutritional assessment?

Screening:
- Identifying characteristics known to be associated with nutritional problems
- Purpose: Quickly identify individuals with nutritional risks

Assesment:
- Process of assessment of body compartments and analysis of structures and function of organ systems and their effects on metabolism

2

What does a nutritional assessment includes?

- Medical and dietary history
- Physical examination
- Anthropometric measurements
- Analysis of biochemical and funcitonal status

3

What are the goals of a nutritional assessment?

- Identifying patients needing nutritional support
- To use a baseline for monitoring and evaluating the response to our nutrition intervention plan
- Disease prevention
- Specific deficiency
- Overall malnutrition

4

Malnutrition is associated with increased problems, like:

- Morbidity (above and beyond the disease state
- Mortality
- Hospital lenght of stay
- Health care costs...

5

How do we assess?

ABCDF
A- Anthropometrics
B-Biochemical
C- Clinical (includes physical examination and Hx)

D- Dietary
F- Functional

6

What are the depletion stages, and method used to detect the stage?

1. Diet inadequacy (Diet)

2. DEcreased tissue level (Biochemical)

3. Decreased bodily fluid level (Biochemical)

4. Decreased function-tissue (Anthr- Biochemical)

5. Decreased enzyme activity (biochemical)

6. Functional change (Behavior, physiological)

7. Clinical symptoms (clinical)

8. Anatomical sign (Clinical)

7

How can we measure height? Which one is less recommended?

- Standing
- Knee height
- Arm span

Arm span not recommended. Not used for asians, african american, people with deformities.

8

What are some BMI limitations?

- Does not measure body composition

- Varies in relation to age, sex, ethnicity

- Limited applicability with athletes
(because of muscles... by measuring waist circumferance, better idea of fat distribution)

- Must be accompanied by other measures i.e. waist circumferance

9

What is an advantage of BMI?

Better than weight or height alone.

Only validated method for estimating healthy body weight

10

What are the units in BMI?

kg/m2

11

What can significant weight loss predict?

- Mortality

- Surgical outcomes/ post-op complications

- Risk of functional impairment

12

What are characteristics of waist circumference measurement?

- Reflective of visceral fat stores and abdominal obesity

- Measures circumference at level of iliac crest/navel

- >102 in men and >88 in women
=> indicates increased risk for CVD and type 2 diabetes--- INDEPENDANT FROM BMI

13

What does Bioelectrical impedance measures? What does it estimate? Advantages?

Measures impedance to a low frequency electrical current
- Measures resistance to an electrical current (mainly from fat)
- Electrical current will go through body fluid, and fat will cause resistance, so that's what you are measuring

Advantage:
-Rapid, safe, non-invasive

Estimates:
- Fat mass
- Fat free mass
- Total body water

14

What are limitation to bioelectrical impedance?

- Influenced by hydration status
- Less precise in atypical bodies
- Reference data is limited
- Works with normal type/range of people... if normal weight, normal height etc..

15

What are characteristics of Dual energy X-ray?

Imaging technique based on attenuation of radiation form different tissue densities
- Measures bone, soft lean and fat tissues, whole body and segments
- Sufficient precision to asses short and long-term changes

Recognized as a reference method (used a lot in osteoporosis)

16

What are some limitations of DXA?

- Expensive bu increasingly accessible in research settings

- Minimal exposure to radiation

- Assumes normal hydration status

17

Characteristics of Air displacement (BOD POD)

Total body volume measured by air displacement in a chamber

Comparable to hydrostatic weighing
- Based on FAT and LEAN TISSUE density
- Measures air displacement

18

What are some limitations of BOD POD?

- Access to instrument
- Residual lung volume must be measured

19

What is the conversion from inch to cm, and kg to lb?

1 ich is 2,54 cm
1 kg is 2,2 lb