Flashcards in Nutrition assessment-part 1 Deck (19):
What is the difference between nutritional screening and nutritional assessment?
- Identifying characteristics known to be associated with nutritional problems
- Purpose: Quickly identify individuals with nutritional risks
- Process of assessment of body compartments and analysis of structures and function of organ systems and their effects on metabolism
What does a nutritional assessment includes?
- Medical and dietary history
- Physical examination
- Anthropometric measurements
- Analysis of biochemical and funcitonal status
What are the goals of a nutritional assessment?
- Identifying patients needing nutritional support
- To use a baseline for monitoring and evaluating the response to our nutrition intervention plan
- Disease prevention
- Specific deficiency
- Overall malnutrition
Malnutrition is associated with increased problems, like:
- Morbidity (above and beyond the disease state
- Hospital lenght of stay
- Health care costs...
How do we assess?
C- Clinical (includes physical examination and Hx)
What are the depletion stages, and method used to detect the stage?
1. Diet inadequacy (Diet)
2. DEcreased tissue level (Biochemical)
3. Decreased bodily fluid level (Biochemical)
4. Decreased function-tissue (Anthr- Biochemical)
5. Decreased enzyme activity (biochemical)
6. Functional change (Behavior, physiological)
7. Clinical symptoms (clinical)
8. Anatomical sign (Clinical)
How can we measure height? Which one is less recommended?
- Knee height
- Arm span
Arm span not recommended. Not used for asians, african american, people with deformities.
What are some BMI limitations?
- Does not measure body composition
- Varies in relation to age, sex, ethnicity
- Limited applicability with athletes
(because of muscles... by measuring waist circumferance, better idea of fat distribution)
- Must be accompanied by other measures i.e. waist circumferance
What is an advantage of BMI?
Better than weight or height alone.
Only validated method for estimating healthy body weight
What are the units in BMI?
What can significant weight loss predict?
- Surgical outcomes/ post-op complications
- Risk of functional impairment
What are characteristics of waist circumference measurement?
- Reflective of visceral fat stores and abdominal obesity
- Measures circumference at level of iliac crest/navel
- >102 in men and >88 in women
=> indicates increased risk for CVD and type 2 diabetes--- INDEPENDANT FROM BMI
What does Bioelectrical impedance measures? What does it estimate? Advantages?
Measures impedance to a low frequency electrical current
- Measures resistance to an electrical current (mainly from fat)
- Electrical current will go through body fluid, and fat will cause resistance, so that's what you are measuring
-Rapid, safe, non-invasive
- Fat mass
- Fat free mass
- Total body water
What are limitation to bioelectrical impedance?
- Influenced by hydration status
- Less precise in atypical bodies
- Reference data is limited
- Works with normal type/range of people... if normal weight, normal height etc..
What are characteristics of Dual energy X-ray?
Imaging technique based on attenuation of radiation form different tissue densities
- Measures bone, soft lean and fat tissues, whole body and segments
- Sufficient precision to asses short and long-term changes
Recognized as a reference method (used a lot in osteoporosis)
What are some limitations of DXA?
- Expensive bu increasingly accessible in research settings
- Minimal exposure to radiation
- Assumes normal hydration status
Characteristics of Air displacement (BOD POD)
Total body volume measured by air displacement in a chamber
Comparable to hydrostatic weighing
- Based on FAT and LEAN TISSUE density
- Measures air displacement
What are some limitations of BOD POD?
- Access to instrument
- Residual lung volume must be measured