Nutrition During Pregnancy & Lactation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nutrition During Pregnancy & Lactation Deck (61):
1

before conception, as well as during pregnancy, influence the outcome of her pregnancy

What is the influence?

A mother’s food habits and nutritional status

2

How does an an unborn child get nourishment required to begin/sustain fetal growth and development?

through the food a pregnant woman eats

3

Mother needs more energy to?

-Supply the increased fuel demanded by the enlarged metabolic workload for mother and fetus

-Spare protein for added tissue-building requirements

4

Increase energy by ______ in _______

-340 to 450 kcal/day
-second & third trimester

5

preferred sources of energy

Increased complex carbohydrates and protein in the diet

6

serve as the building blocks for growth of body tissues during pregnancy?

proteins

7

Beneficial roles of proteins

-Rapid growth of the fetus
-Development of the placenta
-Growth of maternal tissues
-Increased maternal blood volume
-Amniotic fluid
-Storage reserves

8

Protein intake should increase to?

25g/day

9

foods complete in protein?

Milk, eggs, cheese, soy products, meat

10

foods with incomplete proteins?

legumes, grains

11

calcium, iron, B vitamins come from?

protein rich foods

12

What is essential for fetal development of bones and teeth

Calcium

-Supplements might be needed in cases of poor maternal stores or pregnancies involving more than one fetus

13

Key Mineral & Vitamin Needs

iron, zinc, copper

14

Iron essential for

increased hemoglobin synthesis

15

Zinc/Copper absorption inhibited by

with high iron intake

16

Vitamins A & C are needed in higher amounts to

support tissue growth

17

Vitamin B needed in higher amounts because of vital role as

coenzyme factors in energy production and protein production

18

Folate benefits for baby

-Builds mature red blood cells during pregnancy
-Needed during early periconceptional period

19

Recommend daily folate intake

600 mcg/day during pregnancy and 400 mcg/day for non-pregnant women

20

Folic acid prevents what?

neural tube defects (usually occur at lower spine or lower cranium)

21

Vitamin D ensures?

-Absorption and utilization of calcium and phosphorus for fetal bone growth

*deficiency is a problem

22

Exposure to sunlight increases?

synthesis of vitamin D

23

How much milk should you consume to ensure adequate vitamin D

3 cups/day

24

Weight gain during pregnancy depend on?

mother’s pregnancy nutritional status and body mass index (BMI)

Quality of foods consumed to increase weight is important

Weight reduction should never be undertaken during pregnancy

25

DIfferent weight gain depending on normal weight?

Underweight women: 28 to 40 lb
Normal-weight women: 25 to 35 lb
Overweight women: 15 to 25 lb
Obese women: approximately 15 lb
Teenage girls: 35 to 40 lb
Women carrying twins: 35 to 45 lb
Women carrying triplets: overall gain of 50 lb

26

Average amount of weight gain during first trimester?

2-4 lbs

27

How much weight gain after first trimester?

1 lb/ week for remainder of pregnancy

28

Core food plan is designed to meet?

increased nutrition needs

29

What may require alternative food plans

ethnic background, belief systems, lifestyles

30

What substances should pregnant women avoid?

alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, and drugs

31

What includes sufficient quantities and regular meals

daily food plan

32

example of physiologic synergism

mother, fetus, and placenta collaborate to sustain and nurture new life.

33

once born, how does the mother continues to provide all of her baby’s nutrition needs.

through her diet with breastfeeding

34

When does nausea/vomiting occur

briefly during first trimester ~ important to remember that can occur at any time of day

caused by hormonal adaptations

35

What helps with nausea/vomiting

-Small, frequent, dry, easily digested energy foods may relieve symptoms.

-Consume liquids between, not with, meals


Severe and prolonged sickness requires medical treatment.

36

constipation?

-May occur in latter part of pregnancy

-The result of increased pressure of enlarging uterus and reduced normal peristalsis

-Remedies include exercise, increased fluid intake, high-fiber foods

37

Hemorrhoids?

-Caused by increased weight of baby

-Usually controlled by dietary suggestions used for constipation

38

Heartburn?

-Caused by pressure of enlarging uterus crowding
the stomach

-Dividing day’s food intake into a series of small meals usually relieves condition

39

Effects of iron supplements?

-Black stool, nausea, constipation, diarrhea

-Take iron supplements 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal with water or orange juice

40

Identifying poor food patterns can prevent

nutrition problems

-Insufficient food intake
-Poor food selection
-Poor food distribution throughout day

41

High Risk Mothers & Infants?

nutrition problems
tetratogens
teenage pregnancy

42

Teenage pregnancy

Special care must be given to support adequate growth of mother and fetus.

43

Planning personal care involves?

-Work with mother in sensitive + supportive manner.

-Dangerous practices should be avoided.

-Craving for and consumption of nonfood items is sometimes seen (Pica)

44

Alcohol consumption risk?

fetal alcohol syndrome

45

Vitamin abuse by mega dosing and Caffeine used in extreme excess also may cause?

fetal damage

46

Poverty puts pregnant women in danger because

of the need for resources for financial assistance and food supplements

47

complications of pregnancy

anemia
neural tube defects
intrauterine growth failure
HTN
gestational diabetes
pre-existing disease

48

Anemia complications?

-Deficiency of iron or folate in mother’s diet

-Dietary intake must be determined, supplements used as indicated

49

intrauterine growth failure caused by

low pregnancy weight
inadequate weight gain
smoking

50

HTN complications?

-Related to diets low in protein, kilocalories, calcium

-Optimal nutrition important, medical treatment required

51

gestational diabetes?

-Results from increased metabolic workload

-Important to identify based on risk factors and treat with special diet or insulin

52

pre-existing disease that can cause complications?

-Hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, allergies & intolerances, inborn errors of metabolism, phenylketonuria (PKU), and other diseases can complicate pregnancy

-Pregnancy is managed by a team of specialists in cases such as these

53

Breastfeeding is recommended for at least

first 12 months postpartum

-Proper instruction and support can overcome common difficulties.

-Well-nourished mothers who exclusively breastfeed provide adequate nutrition.

54

Solid foods added to a babies diet at

6 months of age

55

Mammary glands extract nutrients from

maternal blood and synthesize other compounds.

56

Stimulation of nipple from infant suckling stimulates milk production.

-Prolactin stimulates milk production
-Oxytocin is responsible for letdown reflex

57

colostrum?

-first milk & is rich in antibodies

- Mature milk comes in within a few days of delivery
-Composition of milk changes during feeding

58

Nutritional Needs for Lactation

-Milk production requires an extra 330 to 400 kcal/day.

-Need for protein during lactation is 25 g/day more than woman’s average need.

-About 3 L/day of water, juices, milk, and soup contribute to necessary fluids.

-Rest, moderate exercise, and relaxation are necessary.

59

Advantages of Breastfeeding

-Fewer infections ~ reduced rates of SIDS, diabetes,
lymphoma, leukemia, Hodgin disease, obesity,

-hypercholesterolemia, and asthma

-Fewer allergies and intolerances

-Ease of digestion

-Convenience and economy

-Improved cognitive development

-Advantages for mother

60

A goal weight gain for a woman of average weight is between

25 to 35 lbs

61

Other discomforts that occur later in pregnancy include

constipation, hemorrhoids, or heartburn from the pressure of the uterus