Flashcards in Nutrition During Pregnancy & Lactation Deck (61):
before conception, as well as during pregnancy, influence the outcome of her pregnancy
What is the influence?
A mother’s food habits and nutritional status
How does an an unborn child get nourishment required to begin/sustain fetal growth and development?
through the food a pregnant woman eats
Mother needs more energy to?
-Supply the increased fuel demanded by the enlarged metabolic workload for mother and fetus
-Spare protein for added tissue-building requirements
Increase energy by ______ in _______
-340 to 450 kcal/day
-second & third trimester
preferred sources of energy
Increased complex carbohydrates and protein in the diet
serve as the building blocks for growth of body tissues during pregnancy?
Beneficial roles of proteins
-Rapid growth of the fetus
-Development of the placenta
-Growth of maternal tissues
-Increased maternal blood volume
Protein intake should increase to?
foods complete in protein?
Milk, eggs, cheese, soy products, meat
foods with incomplete proteins?
calcium, iron, B vitamins come from?
protein rich foods
What is essential for fetal development of bones and teeth
-Supplements might be needed in cases of poor maternal stores or pregnancies involving more than one fetus
Key Mineral & Vitamin Needs
iron, zinc, copper
Iron essential for
increased hemoglobin synthesis
Zinc/Copper absorption inhibited by
with high iron intake
Vitamins A & C are needed in higher amounts to
support tissue growth
Vitamin B needed in higher amounts because of vital role as
coenzyme factors in energy production and protein production
Folate benefits for baby
-Builds mature red blood cells during pregnancy
-Needed during early periconceptional period
Recommend daily folate intake
600 mcg/day during pregnancy and 400 mcg/day for non-pregnant women
Folic acid prevents what?
neural tube defects (usually occur at lower spine or lower cranium)
Vitamin D ensures?
-Absorption and utilization of calcium and phosphorus for fetal bone growth
*deficiency is a problem
Exposure to sunlight increases?
synthesis of vitamin D
How much milk should you consume to ensure adequate vitamin D
Weight gain during pregnancy depend on?
mother’s pregnancy nutritional status and body mass index (BMI)
Quality of foods consumed to increase weight is important
Weight reduction should never be undertaken during pregnancy
DIfferent weight gain depending on normal weight?
Underweight women: 28 to 40 lb
Normal-weight women: 25 to 35 lb
Overweight women: 15 to 25 lb
Obese women: approximately 15 lb
Teenage girls: 35 to 40 lb
Women carrying twins: 35 to 45 lb
Women carrying triplets: overall gain of 50 lb
Average amount of weight gain during first trimester?
How much weight gain after first trimester?
1 lb/ week for remainder of pregnancy
Core food plan is designed to meet?
increased nutrition needs
What may require alternative food plans
ethnic background, belief systems, lifestyles
What substances should pregnant women avoid?
alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, and drugs
What includes sufficient quantities and regular meals
daily food plan
example of physiologic synergism
mother, fetus, and placenta collaborate to sustain and nurture new life.
once born, how does the mother continues to provide all of her baby’s nutrition needs.
through her diet with breastfeeding
When does nausea/vomiting occur
briefly during first trimester ~ important to remember that can occur at any time of day
caused by hormonal adaptations
What helps with nausea/vomiting
-Small, frequent, dry, easily digested energy foods may relieve symptoms.
-Consume liquids between, not with, meals
Severe and prolonged sickness requires medical treatment.
-May occur in latter part of pregnancy
-The result of increased pressure of enlarging uterus and reduced normal peristalsis
-Remedies include exercise, increased fluid intake, high-fiber foods
-Caused by increased weight of baby
-Usually controlled by dietary suggestions used for constipation
-Caused by pressure of enlarging uterus crowding
-Dividing day’s food intake into a series of small meals usually relieves condition
Effects of iron supplements?
-Black stool, nausea, constipation, diarrhea
-Take iron supplements 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal with water or orange juice
Identifying poor food patterns can prevent
-Insufficient food intake
-Poor food selection
-Poor food distribution throughout day
High Risk Mothers & Infants?
Special care must be given to support adequate growth of mother and fetus.
Planning personal care involves?
-Work with mother in sensitive + supportive manner.
-Dangerous practices should be avoided.
-Craving for and consumption of nonfood items is sometimes seen (Pica)
Alcohol consumption risk?
fetal alcohol syndrome
Vitamin abuse by mega dosing and Caffeine used in extreme excess also may cause?
Poverty puts pregnant women in danger because
of the need for resources for financial assistance and food supplements
complications of pregnancy
neural tube defects
intrauterine growth failure
-Deficiency of iron or folate in mother’s diet
-Dietary intake must be determined, supplements used as indicated
intrauterine growth failure caused by
low pregnancy weight
inadequate weight gain
-Related to diets low in protein, kilocalories, calcium
-Optimal nutrition important, medical treatment required
-Results from increased metabolic workload
-Important to identify based on risk factors and treat with special diet or insulin
pre-existing disease that can cause complications?
-Hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, allergies & intolerances, inborn errors of metabolism, phenylketonuria (PKU), and other diseases can complicate pregnancy
-Pregnancy is managed by a team of specialists in cases such as these
Breastfeeding is recommended for at least
first 12 months postpartum
-Proper instruction and support can overcome common difficulties.
-Well-nourished mothers who exclusively breastfeed provide adequate nutrition.
Solid foods added to a babies diet at
6 months of age
Mammary glands extract nutrients from
maternal blood and synthesize other compounds.
Stimulation of nipple from infant suckling stimulates milk production.
-Prolactin stimulates milk production
-Oxytocin is responsible for letdown reflex
-first milk & is rich in antibodies
- Mature milk comes in within a few days of delivery
-Composition of milk changes during feeding
Nutritional Needs for Lactation
-Milk production requires an extra 330 to 400 kcal/day.
-Need for protein during lactation is 25 g/day more than woman’s average need.
-About 3 L/day of water, juices, milk, and soup contribute to necessary fluids.
-Rest, moderate exercise, and relaxation are necessary.
Advantages of Breastfeeding
-Fewer infections ~ reduced rates of SIDS, diabetes,
lymphoma, leukemia, Hodgin disease, obesity,
-hypercholesterolemia, and asthma
-Fewer allergies and intolerances
-Ease of digestion
-Convenience and economy
-Improved cognitive development
-Advantages for mother
A goal weight gain for a woman of average weight is between
25 to 35 lbs