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Flashcards in Nutrition Lipids in Nutrition Deck (24):

What are Trans Fatty Acids?

Unsaturated fatty acids. At least one double bond in TRANS configuration. Potential for closer packing or aligning of acyl chains. Reduced fluidity vs. cis double bond


What are some common Saturated fats?

Palmitic acid. Stearic acid


What are some common Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA)?

Omega-9, Oleic Acid (olive oil)


What are some common Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA)?

Omega-6, Omega-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA))


What are some food sources for Cis MUFAs?

Olive oil. Canola oil. Avocado. Almonds, hazelnuts, pecans


What are some food sources for Omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs?

Linoleic acid (nuts, seeds, certain vegetables). y-Linolenic acid (evening primrose oil, black currant seed oil, borage oil). Arachidonic acid (meat, poultry, egg yolk, not from plants)


What is Evening Primose Oil (EPO)?

Rich source of linoleic acid and y-linolenic acid. Can be used for chronic inflammation (atopic dermatitis, eczema, rheumatoid arthritis), women's health conditions (breast pain, menopausal symptoms). Little evidence to support these uses


What is Borage Oil?

Similar to EPO but lower percentage of linoleic acid and higher percentage of y-linolenic acid. Also can be used for Atopic dermatitis


What are some food sources for Omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs?

Made by some plants. Soy bean oil, canola oil. Flaxseed oil. Green vegetables. Some fortified eggs. Some animal fat (grass-fed beef)


When is a-Linolenic Acid (ALA) used?

Inefficient conversion in humans to EPA and DHA. Higher intake of ALA may be important for protection against heart disease in people who don't eat much fish. Higher dietary intake of ALA: lower prevalence of insulin resistance in normal weight middle-aged Japanese men and women


What is Flax?

Contains Lignans (phytoestrogen) (richest food source), a-linolenic acid, fiber. Lowers glucose and insulin. Lowers serum total and LDL cholesterol. Management of mild menopausal symptoms


What are the consequences of inadequate intake of n-6 PUFAs?

Scaly skin rash. Increased transepidermal water loss. Reduced growtw


What are the consequences of inadequate intake of n-3 PUFAs?

Reduction in visual function. Changes in learning behaviors


What are the recommendations for linoleic acid (n-6 PUFA) intake for adults?

Men: 17g/day. Women: 12g/day


What are the recommendations for a-linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA) intake for adults?

Men: 1.6g/day. Women: 1.1g/day


What is Interesterified fat?

Trans fat substitute. Chemically modified oil. Blending fully hydrogenated oils (saturated fats) with un-hydrogenated oil's (unsaturated fats). May be more harmful than trans fat


How do you know by looking at the foods ingredients if it contains Interesterified fat?

"Interesterified", "high in stearic acid", "stearate rich", "high stearate"


Whats important about the n-6 vs. n-3 ratio?

High ratio thought to promote pathogenesis of may diseases. Lower ratio important for good health, improve diet by increasing n-3 and decreasing n-6


How is n-3 related to cardiovascular health?

Moderate fish oil consumption decreases risk of: MI, sudden cardiac death, CHD, AF, death in patients w/ HF


How is n-3 with pregnancy and infant development?

Required for normal conception, growth, and development of an embryo. Important in development of nervous system


What are the benefits of n-3 during pregnancy and infant development?

Lower rates of preterm birth. Lower levels of postpartum depression. Reduction in development of childhood allergic diseases (i.e. asthma)


What is the recommended daily intake of DHA during pregnancy?



What should be done with PUFAs with diseases and conditions involving inflammation?

Increase n-3 intake, decrease n-6 intake


How is n-3 related to depression?

Present knowledge base supports use in acute depression of omega-3 supplements (at least 60% EPA, ceiling around 2000 mg/day of EPA in excess of DHA)