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Flashcards in Nutritional Needs Deck (70):
1

Why do children need lots of energy

Because they grow quickly

2

Why should young children have small and frequent meals

their stomachs are small, so it's better because it means they get the energy they need

3

What is an important source of nutrients for small children?

Milk

4

What should young children be encouraged to do?

Try a variety of foods

5

What nutrients are especially important to children?

Protein, to help with growth and repair
Carbs and fat, help with energy
Calcium and vitamin d, for healthy teeth and bone development

6

What can foods high in sugar do to small children?

Can cause hyper ness
Tooth decay
Weight gain

7

Why should families all eat healthy?

Because eating habits are adopted from our parents, so it's important to set a good example

8

What should teenaged follow when eating

The eatwell guide

9

When do rapid growth spurts happen in teenagers

Early teens, girls usually start earlier than boys

10

What nutrients do teenagers need the most of

Protein to cope with growth spurts
Iron and vitamin c- period loses iron and vit c helps absorb iron
Calcium and vitamin d- helps skeleton reach peak size and bone density.

11

What can stress lead towards

Anorexia or weight gain

12

Why should adults stick to the eat well guide?

They stop growing so they should maintain a healthy lifestyle to keep the body disease free

13

Why do men require more calories ?

Because they have more lean muscle which means they require more energy. And they are usually taller and bigger

14

Why is iron still important for women?

Because they still lose it during their periods

15

Why is calcium and vitamin d still important also?

It can help reduce the chance of bone disease in later life, and women lose bone strength quickly after menopause so these nutrients are needed to keep strong

16

What should a pregnant women do to keep healthy

Eat 200 more calories towards the end of pregnancy o support the babies growth and consume more folic acid o reduce the risk of birth defects such as spina bifida

17

What happens to elderly adults muscle

It turns into fat so therefore they need less energy

18

Why should elderly adults cut down on saturated fats

To make sure they stay healthy and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease

19

Why should meals be adapted o be more interesting for the elderly?

Because their senses of smell and taste changes

20

What are the main nutrients for the elderly

Calcium and vitamin d-to stop bones from becoming brittle and weak
Vitamin b12- to keep the brain healthy and prevent memory loss
Fibre- to prevent constipation as the digestive system becomes weak
Vitamin a- to maintain good eyesight

21

What is obesity

When the body has too much fat

22

What BMIs class as obese

30-35 is obese and 35+ is extremely obese

23

What health problems can obesity lead to

High blood pressure and a greater risk of cancer
Also low self asteem and tiredness

24

How is coronary heart disease caused

By clogged arteries

25

What's a cause for coronary heart disease

Smoking or eating lots of saturated fat

26

What health problems can coronary heart disease lead to

Pain in chest, blood close and heart attacks

27

What is anaemia?

Iron deficiency

28

What are the symptoms of anaemia

Pale complexion, tiredness or headaches

29

What do people with anaemia have a reduced store of?

Red blood cells

30

How is diabetes and insulin connected

Insulin is made in the pancreas, and diabetes is when blood glucose levels stay too high because the pancreas either can't create enough insulin to control it or the body resists it

31

Why do we need energy

To keep our hearts beating
Keep organs functioning
Maintain body temp
Muscle contraction

32

What are the factors affecting how much energy we need

Gender, age, level of activity and body size

33

Where do we get our energy from

Macros

34

What are the micros energy values

Carbs-4kcal per g
Protein - 4kcal per g
Fat-9kcal per g

35

What does E.A.R stand for

Estimated average requirements

36

How much of our energy should come from carbs

50%

37

How much of our energy should come from fats

35%

38

How much of our energy should come from protein

15%

39

What is the equation used to out how much energy we need

Basal metabolic rate x physical activity level

40

What is basal metabolic rate

The rate a which a person uses energy to maintain the basic functions of the body when it's at complete rest

41

How do you calculate bmi

Bmi=weight (kg) divided by height in m squared

42

What happens if you have a positive energy balance

You gain weight

43

What happens if you have a negative energy balance

You lose weight

44

What's the definition of protein

A macronutrient that is needed by all animals, including humans

45

What is protein made up of

Amino acids

46

What are the sources of protein

HBV and LBV

47

What does HBV and LBV stand for

High and low biological value

48

Is HBV or LBV better and why

HBV is better because it contains all essential amino acids whereas LBV is missing one or more essential amino acids

49

Name some HBVs

Meat, eggs and fish

50

Name some LBVs

Nuts, seeds and beans

51

What are the functions of protein

Repair and growth of the body, give the body energy

52

What's the symptoms of protein deficiency

Hair loss, growth problems, bad digestion

53

How may molecules are in a monosaccharide

One sugar molecule

54

What is monosaccharides also know as

Simple sugars

55

Name examples of monosaccharides

Glucose-ripe fruit and veg
Fructose-fruit and veg
Galactose-milk from mammals

56

What is a disaccharide

Two simple sugar molecules

57

Name some examples of disaccharides

Maltose-cereal
Sucrose-sugar cane and beet
Lactose- milk from mammals

58

What do complex polysaccharides taste like

Not sweet

59

How long does it take to break down complex carbs

Long time

60

Name the types of complex carbs

Starch-starchy veg
Pectin-some fruits and some root veg
Dextin-formed when foods are baked or toasted
NSP- dietary fibre

61

What are the effects if you have too many carbs

Tooth decay
Obesity
Type 2 diabetes

62

What are the symptoms of carb deficiency

Fatigue, weight loss, weakness

63

What is dietary fibre

A type of carb found in plants

64

Where is dietary fibre not absorbed

The small intestine

65

How is dietary fibre broken down

It's fermented by bacteria in the colon and provide a small amount of energy

66

Name some sources of dietary fibre

Whole grain, oats

67

How does fibre help in our diet

Prevents constipation
Reduces cholesterol levels

68

How much dietary fibre do need a day

Adults-18g
Kids-little bit less

69

What are the symptoms of fibre deficiency

Constipation, unhealthy heart

70

What are the symptoms of excess fibre

Diarrhoea, bloating