NV constipation diarrhea Flashcards Preview

N/V GERD UC/CD Antibiotics > NV constipation diarrhea > Flashcards

Flashcards in NV constipation diarrhea Deck (47):
1

scopolamine

anticholinergics
(N/V)

2

cyclizine
dimenhydrinate
diphenhydramine
hydroxyzine
meclizine
doxylamine

Antihistamines (N/V)

3

chlorpromazine
prochlorperazine
promethazine

phenothiazines (N/V)

4

Droperidol
Haloperidol

Butyrophenones (N/V)

5

Metoclorpramide
trimethobenzamide

benzamides (N/V)

6

Dexamethasone
Methylprednisone

Corticosteroids (N/V)

7

Dronabinol
Nabilone

Cannabinoids (N/V)

8

Lorazepam
Alprazolam

Benzodiazepines (N/V)

9

Dolasetron
Granisetron
Ondansetron
Palonesetron

Serotonin Antagonists (N/V)

10

Aprepitant
Netupitant

Neurokinin-1 antagonists (N/V)

11

Calcium polycarbophil
psyllium
methylcellulose

Absorbents & Bulk Agents (diarrhea)

12

Loperamide
Diphenoxylate + atropine

Antiperistaltic Agents (diarrhea)

13

Bismuth subsalicylate
Octreotide

Antisecretory Agents (diarrhea)

14

Ciprofloxacin
Lexofloxacin
Azithromycin
Rifaximin

Anti-infectives (diarrhea)

15

Dicylomine
hyoscyamine
clidinium+chlordiazepoxide
peppermint oil

Anti-spasmodics (diarrhea)

16

Psyllium
Polycarbophil
Methylcellulose

Bulk Producers (constipation)

17

Lactulose
Sortbitol
Glycerin
Polyethyline glycol 3350

Hyperosmotics (constipation)

18

Mineral oil

lubricant (constipation)

19

Bisacodyl
Senna
Castor Oil

Stimulant laxatives (constipation)

20

Docusate

Emollients (constipation)

21

Magnesium citrate
magnesium sulfate
other sodium/phosphate

Saline Agents (constipation)

22

Lupiprostone
Linaclotide

Intestinal Secretagogues (constipation)

23

Methylnaltrexone
BromideNaloxegol

Peripherally Acting Mu-opioid antagonists (constipation)

24

This area of the vomiting center has 3 types of receptors: 5HT3, neurokinin-1, dopamine D2

Chemoreceptor Trigger zone (CTZ)

25

Is the CTZ inside or outside the BBB?

outside

26

What is the cerebral cortex affected by?

sensory: sight/smell/emotion

27

Which area of the vomiting center are best targeted to treat motion system?

Vestibular system (anticholinergics and antihistamines)

28

Best treatment for mild n/v in pregnancy?

Pyridoxine (B6) or Doxylamine

29

best treatment for severe n/v in pregnancy?

promethazine

30

treatment for hyperemesis gravidarum

methylprednisolone

31

DO NOT GIVE FOR nausea/vomiting in pregnancy...and why

Ondansetron - cleft palate/heart defects

32

In which class of drugs will you have a risk of EPS?

phenothiazines, butyrophenones, benzamides

33

Droperidol and haloperidol act on which receptors, treating N/V

Dopamine antagonists

34

which of the serotonin antagonists if most effective at preventing delayed nausea related to chemo (longest 1/2 life)

Palonsentron

35

Aprepitant (Neurokinin-1) has MANY interactions due to being what substrate?

CYP3A4

36

which anti n/v med to take the night before surgery?

scopolamine

37

which n/v med to take before anesthesia?

palonsetron or dexamethasone

38

n/v meds recommended after surgery?

Droperidol or serotonin antagonists

39

most of the anti-constipation meds take 1-3 days. For faster relief, which hyperosmotic do you choose?

Polyethyline glycol (PEG) 3350

40

what to be cautious of when prescribing mineral oil for constipation

aspiration risk! avoid in elderly

41

contraindication of castor oil (stimulant laxative)?

PREGNANCY - causes uterine contractions and rupture

42

Which n/v med is used as PROPHYLAXIS for constipation, and takes up to 72 hours for effect?

emollients (Docusate)

43

The saline agents need to be avoided in which type of patient?

RENAL failure, CHF, elderly

44

When to prescribe Mu-opioid receptor antagonists

RESERVE for special situations - give to patients taking opioids to prevent the decrease in GI motility that they cause

45

do you want to use antiperistaltic agents for infectious diarrhea?

NO! don't want to keep the organism inside longer.

46

MOA absorbents/bulk agents

absorb water into intestines, forming gel

47

antiinfectives used to treat infectious diarrhea

Cipro
levofloxacin
azithromycin
rifamixin