Flashcards in Obesity Lecture Deck (56)
What is obesity?
complex, multifactorial, chronic disease
interaction of genotype & environment
excessive accumulation of fat
What is the body mass index?
accepted measure of overweight & obesity in children & adults
How is the term morbidly obese typically used? What does it really mean? Should we use this term?
**really means: obese w/ obesity-related comorbidities
**shouldn't use the term b/c it is pejorative
What BMI classifies as underweight?
What is a normal BMI range?
What BMI range is considered overweight?
What BMI range is considered Obese I? Obese II? Obese III?
Obese I: 30-34.9
Obese II: 35-39.9
Obese III: >40
What are the good things about using BMI to classify obesity?
It is low cost & easy.
It correlates well with body fat.
It predicts health risk well.
It is a useful screening tool.
What are the drawbacks of using BMI?
Old people: for a given BMI may have more fat.
Short People (less than 5'): aren't as overweight as their BMI may indicate
Well-muscled people: aren't as overweight as their BMI may indicate
Women: for a given BMI may have more fat.
Asians need a different BMI.
What is considered overweight & obese with the BMI for the asian & south asian population?
Describe how you measure the waist circumference.
tape measure in horizontal plane @ the level of the iliac crest.
Snug, but not compressing the skin
If you have a BMI 25-34.9 & a waist circumference greater than ____ for men & ____ for women...you have a greater risk for what?
>102 cm or 40 inches for men.
>88 cm or 35 inches for women
Greater risk for:
Type II Diabetes
coronary heart disease
How do you define metabolic syndrome?
3/5 risk factors
High fasting glucose
High Blood pressure
How do you define obesity for children & adolescents? What are these ranges?
BMI in percentiles
Works for ages 2-20
Underweight: 95th percentile
Severe Obesity: >99th percentile
The US Preventative Services Task Force recommends intensive counseling for obese adults. What qualifies as intensive counseling?
more than 1 session per month for at least 3 months
T/F Overweight and obese individuals were 40% and 42% less likely in 2008 compared with 1994 to self-diagnose as overweight.
Between 1994 & 2008 there was an ___ percentage increase in the prevalence of being overweight. How did this change the odds of being diagnosed as overweight by a physician?
69% increase in the prevalence
no change in the odds
What percentage of obese patients are diagnosed?
How does the US rank in terms of obesity?
ninth most obese country
What fraction of the US adults are obese? Overweight? Normal weight?
1/3 normal weight
There is a greater prevalence in obesity in which of these groups?
Black men/White men
Black women/White women
Hispanic men/White men
Hispanic women/White women
White men>Black men
Black women>White women
Hispanic men>White men
Hispanic women >White women
Childhood obesity is most common in which 3 ethnic groups?
Having an obese parent increases your risk for obesity by what factor?
T/F Obesity is more prevalent in low income populations.
What 3 things predict whether childhood obesity will persist into adulthood?
Age: the older you are when you are obese...the more likely to stay that way
Severity of Obesity: the more severe...the more likely to stay obese
How can we describe the interaction of genes & environment in determining obesity?
Genes load the gun.
Environment/Behavior pulls the trigger.
What are the 3 general categories of obesity genetics?
1. Monogenic forms of obesity
2. Syndromic forms of obesity
3. Common obesity
What are monogenic forms of obesity?
What percentage of people have this?
What effects does this have?
rare forms of obesity that are caused by a spontaneous mutation in a single gene (6 known)
occurs in 5-10% of the severely obese
affects appetite control, food intake, energy homeostasis
codes for leptin, leptin receptor, pro-opiomelanocortin, melanocortin-4-receptor
Describe what happens with leptin deficiency.
leptin deficiency is inherited in an aut recessive manner...produces extreme, early-onset obesity with intense hyperphagia
hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism w/ spontaneous puberty
**can be fixed w/ leptin treatments