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USMLE STEP 2, for real tho > OBGYN > Flashcards

Flashcards in OBGYN Deck (43):
1

significantly elevated DHEAS support the diagnosis of

an adrenal tumor as the etiology of hirsutism

2

Hair loss in woman after baby

Postpartum telogen effluvium (hair loss) affects 40-50% of women postpartum.
↑ estrogen levels in pregnancy ↑ the synchrony of hair growth.
hair grows and is shed at the same time (not normal growth pattern)

3

Rapid onset of hirsutism and virilizing signs are hallmarks of this disease, and include many of the findings in this patient including acne, hirsutism, amenorrhea, clitoral hypertrophy, and deepening of the voice.

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors

4

Possible causes of virilization include

PCOS
hypothyroidism,
androgen producing tumors (ovarian, adrenal, or pituitary)
anabolic steroid use.
rare cause may be late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

5

__________ is a more severe form of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

Hyperthecosis

more difficult to treat with oral contraceptive therapy. It is also more challenging to achieve successful ovulation induction.

6

_______________, can also be used in addition to the oral contraceptives for hirsutism.

Spironolactone, an aldosterone antagonist diuretic

7

Patients with anovulatory bleeding have ?

predominantly proliferative endometrium from unopposed stimulation by estrogen.

8

Progestins inhibit further endometrial growth via

converting the proliferative to secretory endometrium.

Withdrawal of the progestin then mimics the effect of the involution of the corpus luteum, creating a normal sloughing of the endometrium.

9

Disorders of clotting may present with menstrual symptoms in young women, with _______ being most common.

Von Willeberand disease

10

Leiomyomas typically present in women in their _________ age

30’s and 40’s

11

The progestin in oral contraceptives causes ____________

endometrial atrophy- Dysmenorrhea should be improved.

Since prostaglandins are produced in the endometrium, there would be less produced.

12

Endometriosis pathology

endometrial glands/stroma with hemosiderin-laden macrophages

13

An endometrial biopsy should be performed on all women over age _____with irregular bleeding to rule out endometrial carcinoma.

40

14

Hyperplastic overgrowth of endometrial glands/stroma is consistent with ?

endometrial polyps.

15

What is physiologic leukorrhea

non-pathologic copious white vaginal discharge

16

when do you do the quad screen

2nd trimester

17

who is good to get cell free dna

women over 35 or high risk for trisomy

can be done > 10 weeks

18

What cancer is pcos at risk for

endometrial b/c of excess estrogen

19

what is peripartum cardiomyopathy

rapid onset heart failure > 36 weeks prego
CHF symptoms

20

In order to remain in zero calcium balance, postmenopausal women require a total of ______ of elemental calcium per day.

1200 mg

21

Begin treatment with bisphosphonates w/o a bone scan when

Patients who already have had an osteoporotic fracture may be treated on this basis alone.

22

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines osteopenia (low bone mass) as _______

-1 to -2.5

23

In all patients with advanced ovarian cancer, post-operative_____________ is considered standard of care in the United States.

chemotherapy with a combination of a taxane and platinum adjunct

24

________ of the Liley curve indicate the presence of severe hemolytic disease, with hydrops and fetal death likely within 7-10 days

Zone 3

25

Manual vacuum aspiration is more than 99% effective when?

in early pregnancy (less than eight weeks)

26

External cephalic version and internal versions are contraindicated in ?

active labor.

27

__________ is a common complication after vaginal delivery

Acute cystitis- usually e coli

28

________ is used in pregnancy to treat migraine headaches.

. Amitriptyline

29

Twin-twin transfusion syndrome most commonly occurs in ?

monochorionic, diamniotic twins

is the result of an intrauterine blood transfusion from one twin to the other. It

30

Asthma generally worsens in 40% of pregnant patients. One of the indications for moving to the next line of treatment includes ?

the need to use beta agonists more than twice a week.

31

One SSRI, __________ has been changed to a category D drug because of _____________

paroxetine (Paxil)

↑ risk of fetal cardiac malformations and persistent pulmonary hypertension.

32

The following are associated with retained placenta:

prior Cesarean delivery, uterine leiomyomas, prior uterine curettage and succenturiate lobe of placenta.

33

what does estrogen do to cholesterol

HDL levels increase and LDL levels decrease

34

fetus requirements for methotrexate termination of ectopic

size of ectopic mass <4 cm without a fetal heart rate or <3.5 cm in the presence of a fetal heart rate

35

Colpocleisis is one option to treat _______

uterine prolapse

36

best treatment for stress incontinence

sling
aka Retropubic urethropexy

37

Mifepristone can be effective up to?

nine weeks.

38

Women with a___________ have up to a 2.5 fold increase in prolapse.

family history of POP

39

Medical abortion is associated with ____________ vs surgical abortion

higher blood loss

40

Primary vulvar adenocarcinomas most likely arise from the ?

Bartholin gland

41

Bone density screening is recommended for women beginning at age ?

65

unless they have pre-existing risk factors which warrant earlier screening. Risk factors for osteoporosis are early menopause, glucocorticoid therapy, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol consumption, hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, anticonvulsant therapy, vitamin D deficiency, family history of early or severe osteoporosis, or chronic liver or renal disease.

42

Growth of uterine fibroids is stimulated by ?

estrogen

43

Systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, chronic renal disease and lupus are associated with?

early pregnancy loss