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Flashcards in Object Relations (contemporary) Deck (15):
1

Overview of Object Relations Theory

(Fairbairn, 1941)
-Primary Motivation of the child is object seeking , not drive gratification
-Basic patterns of relatedness are established in the past and became the expected way of relating

2

Object Relations: Pathology

(Kaiser, 1965)

-patient suffers from contact disturbances=inability to engage meaningfully with others in a sustaining or gratifying way

3

Fairbairn: Definition of pathology

(Fairbairn, 1941)
-Libido is object seeking
-pathology is the degree to which perception of current reality is determined by internal drama
-pathology=old bad introjects(not conflicts)

4

What are introjects?

Early objects are internalized and introjects are manifested by repetitions, relational patterns, and transference

5

Fairbairn: Repression

(Fairbairn, 1941)
People repress relationships and relationship ties to parents which cannot be integrated

6

OR curative factors

changed capacity for relatedness

7

Fairbairn: View of development

(Fairbairn, 1941)
-child bonds to parents through whatever content parents provide
-If parents engage in pleasurable exchanges, the child is pleasure seeking with others
-if parents provide painful experiences, children seek pain as a form of connection

8

Fairbairn: Curative Factor

(Fairbairn, 1941)
-the emotional connection with the therapist with therapist neutral supportiveness
-patient sees how old dramas are enacted through interpretations (insight is not enough)
-patient learns new way of relating

9

Winnicott: view of pathology

(Winnicott, 1949)
-pathology comes from maternal deprivation--lack of "good enough mothering"(physical and emotional attunement)
-patient shapes the treatment to provide experiences missed in childhood
if the holding environment has too much stimulation it can be traumatizing, too little and the child develops a false self to appease the objects

10

Winnicott: Curative Facor

(Winnitcott, 1949)
-the search for the true self apart from the false self; look at who you really are, not who you want to be
-the patient becomes comfortable in their own skin and authentic
-the holding environment provides patients with the opportunity to discover who they are

11

Kohut: View of pathology

(Kohut, 1971)
-developmental failures
-children need caregivers to mirror empathy, affirm, validate, and provide idealizing
-failure in transmuting internalization

12

Kohut: patient's therapy gainz

(Kohut, 1971) BAAA
Boundaries
Agency
Authenticity
Affective tone (sense of wholeness of a person's inner experience)

13

Transmuting internalization

the functions of the external self-object are slowly, gradually bit by bit transformed into internal capacities

child learns that they are not omnipotent

14

Kohut: Curative Factor

(Kohut, 1971)
-transmitting internalizations: to slowly and appropriately experience frustrations
-therapist slowly fails to be an empathetic self-object
-encourages increased self-care
-helps patient to relinquish external idealization
-goal of an integrated self where they can depend on their own internal processes for self-esteem

15

Kohut: Development of the self

(Kohut, 1971)
-we begin in a healthy infantile narcissism
-there are three poles of libidinal need: grandiose (feeling special and sense of well-being), idealized parental imago (ability to see strength and hope outside self to seek soothing and direction), and twinship (belonging and security)
-needs are met through self-objects. the mirroring self object confirms sense of greatness and esteem and the idealized self object has great power and provides calmness and security
-the transition from childish grandiosity to mature self occurs through transmuting internalization which forces the child to internalize self-objects