Flashcards in Objective 06: Copper, Lead, and Tin Deck (36)
Can elemental copper be found in nature?
What mineral ores are the most important sources of Copper?
What processes do most copper refineries use to seperate copper from its ores?
1. Acid Leaching
What colour is pure copper metal?
How does the weight of copper compare to iron?
It weighes 20% more than iron
What are the characteristics of Copper?
4. High heat and electrical conductivity
5. High resistance to corrosion
What are industrial uses of Copper in its pure form?
1. Conductors in electrical switchgear and related equipment
2. Electric wire
What is Copper and its Alloys used to manufacture?
1. Heat Exchangers
6. Sheet Roofing
7. Feed stock for the production of brass and bronze alloys
How many copper alloys are commercially available?
Well over 300
What are the most commonly available Copper Alloys?
Various Brasses and Bronzes
An alloy of Copper and Tin but may also contain lead, phosphorus, silicon, nickel, aluminum and zinc
What are examples of groups of cast and wrought bronze alloys that can be made?
1. Phosphur bronze
2. Leaded-Tin bronze
3. Nickel-Tin bronze
4. Aluminum bronze
5. Silicon bronze
What are the benefits of Bronze Alloys over their parent metals?
1. High resistance to corrosion
2. Better machinability
3. Increased strength
What are the benefits of Aluminum Bronzes?
1. Superior wear resistance
2. Anti-galling properties
3. Very corrosion resistant
What is Aluminum Bronze used to construct?
3. Machine parts
What are the benefits of Phosphor Bronze?
1. Very strong
What is Phosphor Bronze used to construct?
2. High grade springs
Alloy of copper and zinc with small amounts of other metals including lead, tin, manganese, iron, silicon, nickel, and aluminum
What proportion of copper to zinc in Brass maximizes ductility?
What are the characteristics of Lead?
4. Highly corrosion resistant
5. Low melting point
From where is lead extracted?
1. Lead sulphide ore (galena)
2. Recycling of scrap from batteries, sheet, cable, bearings, and solder
What applications are lead used for?
1. Lead-acid battery
3. Cable sheathing
6. Electrolytic Refining and Plating
What is the largest single use of lead?
Tin-based and lead-based alloys used to line machine bearings
What is Babbit composed of?
1. Anywhere from 80% lead and <5% tin to >80% tin and 0% lead
2. Antimony and copper usually present in small percentage
3. For added strength, cadmium, bismuth, tellerium, arsenic, nickel, and zinc may be added
Is Babbit 1 form of White Metal?
A variety of alloys made from varying combinations of lead, tin, antimony, bismuth, silver, and zinc which in industry are used chiefly for bearing materials (babbit)
What are the benefits of White Metal?
1. Low melting point which allows for easy casting of bearing shells
2. Sufficient strength and ductility not to crack and squeeze out under heavy loads
3. Soft enough to contour to a shaft, preventing high points on bearing surfaces
4. Good thermal conductivity which allows heat to be readily dissipated away from operating bearing surfaces
What type of Bearing applications is Tin-based Babbit used for?
Higher speed, higher load