Flashcards in observation Deck (18):
what are observational techniques?
a way of seeing/listening to what people do without asking - often used as a way of assess DV
Evaluation of observational techniques?
+ can capture unexpected behavior - insight into spontaneous behavior
- risk of observer bias - researchers interpretation may be affected by expectations
what is naturalistic?
takes place where target behaviour would normally occur
evaluation of naturalist?
+ high external validity - natural so behavior more spontaneous (more generalizable to every day)
- low control of extraneous variables (difficult to detect patterns)
what is controlled?
some control/manipulation of variables including control of EV's
evaluation of controlled?
+ can be replicated because standardized procedure
- may have low external validity - contrived behavior
what is covert?
participants unaware they're being studied
evaluation of covert?
+ demand characteristics reduced as participants don't know they're being watched
- ethically questionable as right to consent an privacy breached
what is overt?
participants are aware of being studied
what is participant observation?
when the research becomes part of the group they're studying
evaluation of participant?
+ lead to greater insight into research experiencing it
- possible loss of objectivity - researcher may identify too strongly
what is non-participant?
when the researcher remains separate from the group they're studying
what are behavioural categories?
target behaviour being observed should be broken up into observable categories
evaluation of behaviour categories?
- difficult to make clear and unambiguous
- dustbin categories - forms of behavior should be in lists otherwise unrecorded
what is time sampling?
observations are made at regular intervals (such as once every 15 seconds)
evaluation of time sampling?
+ reduces the number of observations (more structured and systematic)
- may be unrepresentative as a researcher may miss details outside of time-scale
what is event sampling?
a target behaviour/event is recorded every time it occurs