Flashcards in ocnquiz10 Deck (37)
1. Which percentage of the known species on Earth are marine species? (Also see fig. 12.9)
represent 14 percent
2. Explain why there are relatively few marine species.
the relatively uniform conditions of the ocean do not pressure organisms to adapt, producing less species/
3. Give the percentages of marine species that are benthic compared to those that are pelagic. (Also see fig 12.9)
pelagic consist of 2 percent, while benthic consist of 98 percent.
4. Explain why 98% of marine species are benthic.
The ocean floor contain more variability; therefore, organisms adapt more frequently, producing more species, while the pelagic is uniform throughout, so organisms aren't pressured to adapt, producing less species.
5. Explain why terrestrial organisms have complex plumbing systems compared to marine organisms.
terrestrial organisms have a complex plumbing system, for they need water regulation throughout their body to adapt to changes in their environment. the plumbing system helps retain water and cycles it throughout the body, while marine organisms are surrounds by water and are not at risk of drying out.
6. List the two main marine environments. (Also see fig. 12.25)
7. List the two primary pelagic provinces. (Also see fig. 12.21)
neritic province and oceanic province
8. Define the neritic province. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 557)
the portion of pelagic environment from the shoreline to the depth of 200 meters
9. Define the oceanic province. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 558)
the division of the pelagic environment that is greater than 200 meters.
10. List the oceanic province's four biozones. (Also see fig. 12.21)
11. Define the epipelagic. (Also see fig. 12.25, fig. 12.26, and p. 551)
from the surface to 200 meters depth
12. Define the mesopelagic. (Also see fig. 12.25, fig. 12.26, and p. 556)
from 200 meters to 1000 meters
13. Define the bathypelagic. (Also see fig. 12.25, fig. 12.26, and p. 548)
from 1000 meters to 4000 meters
14. Define the abyssopelagic. (Also see fig. 12.25, fig. 12.26, and p. 547)
includes all the deepest parts of the ocean below 4000 meters
15. Give the single most important factor that determines the distribution of life in the oceanic province.
the availability of sunlight
16. List the three pelagic zones based on the availability of sunlight. (Also see fig. 12.21)
17. Define the euphotic zone. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 552)
Extends from the surface to rarely about 100 meters
18. Define the disphotic zone. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 551)
extends from the euphoric zone to 1000 meters. minimum sun light passes through
19. Define the aphotic zone. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 547)
no sunlight, below 1000 meters
20. Explain why oxygen concentration begin to decrease below 200 m. (Also see fig. 12.26)
unavailability of sunlight for photosynthesis
21. Define the oxygen minimum zone (OML). (Also see fig. 12.26 and p. 558)
a zone of low oxygen concentration from a depth of 700 meters to 1000 meters
22. Give the depth range of the OML. (Also see fig. 12.26)
about 700 meters to 1000 meters
23. Which percentage of the ocean is the aphotic zone?
.25. Explain why oxygen concentrations increase below the OML. (Also see fig. 12.26)
the OML is replenished by deep currents originating from polar regions that bring in cold water with high oxygen levels
26. Define the supralittoral. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 562 (supratidal))
The transitional region between land and sea floor during the spring high tide line.
27. List the two benthic provinces. (Also see fig. 12.25)
28. Define the subneritic province. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 562)
Extends from the spiny high tide shoreline to a depth of 200 meters
29. Define the suboceanic province. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 562)
includes all benthic regions below 200 meters
30. List the two subneritic zones. (Also see fig. 12.25)
littoral and sublittoral zones