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1. Which percentage of the known species on Earth are marine species? (Also see fig. 12.9)

represent 14 percent

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2. Explain why there are relatively few marine species.

the relatively uniform conditions of the ocean do not pressure organisms to adapt, producing less species/

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3. Give the percentages of marine species that are benthic compared to those that are pelagic. (Also see fig 12.9)

pelagic consist of 2 percent, while benthic consist of 98 percent.

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4. Explain why 98% of marine species are benthic.

The ocean floor contain more variability; therefore, organisms adapt more frequently, producing more species, while the pelagic is uniform throughout, so organisms aren't pressured to adapt, producing less species.

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5. Explain why terrestrial organisms have complex plumbing systems compared to marine organisms.

terrestrial organisms have a complex plumbing system, for they need water regulation throughout their body to adapt to changes in their environment. the plumbing system helps retain water and cycles it throughout the body, while marine organisms are surrounds by water and are not at risk of drying out.

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6. List the two main marine environments. (Also see fig. 12.25)

Pelagic
Benthic

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7. List the two primary pelagic provinces. (Also see fig. 12.21)

neritic province and oceanic province

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8. Define the neritic province. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 557)

the portion of pelagic environment from the shoreline to the depth of 200 meters

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9. Define the oceanic province. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 558)

the division of the pelagic environment that is greater than 200 meters.

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10. List the oceanic province's four biozones. (Also see fig. 12.21)

epipelagic
mesopelagic
bathypelagic
abyssopelagic

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11. Define the epipelagic. (Also see fig. 12.25, fig. 12.26, and p. 551)

from the surface to 200 meters depth

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12. Define the mesopelagic. (Also see fig. 12.25, fig. 12.26, and p. 556)

from 200 meters to 1000 meters

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13. Define the bathypelagic. (Also see fig. 12.25, fig. 12.26, and p. 548)

from 1000 meters to 4000 meters

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14. Define the abyssopelagic. (Also see fig. 12.25, fig. 12.26, and p. 547)

includes all the deepest parts of the ocean below 4000 meters

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15. Give the single most important factor that determines the distribution of life in the oceanic province.

the availability of sunlight

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16. List the three pelagic zones based on the availability of sunlight. (Also see fig. 12.21)

euphotic
disphotic
aphotic

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17. Define the euphotic zone. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 552)

Extends from the surface to rarely about 100 meters

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18. Define the disphotic zone. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 551)

extends from the euphoric zone to 1000 meters. minimum sun light passes through

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19. Define the aphotic zone. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 547)

no sunlight, below 1000 meters

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20. Explain why oxygen concentration begin to decrease below 200 m. (Also see fig. 12.26)

unavailability of sunlight for photosynthesis

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21. Define the oxygen minimum zone (OML). (Also see fig. 12.26 and p. 558)

a zone of low oxygen concentration from a depth of 700 meters to 1000 meters

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22. Give the depth range of the OML. (Also see fig. 12.26)

about 700 meters to 1000 meters

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23. Which percentage of the ocean is the aphotic zone?

75 percent

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.25. Explain why oxygen concentrations increase below the OML. (Also see fig. 12.26)

the OML is replenished by deep currents originating from polar regions that bring in cold water with high oxygen levels

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26. Define the supralittoral. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 562 (supratidal))

The transitional region between land and sea floor during the spring high tide line.

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27. List the two benthic provinces. (Also see fig. 12.25)

subneritic province
suboceanic province

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28. Define the subneritic province. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 562)

Extends from the spiny high tide shoreline to a depth of 200 meters

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29. Define the suboceanic province. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 562)

includes all benthic regions below 200 meters

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30. List the two subneritic zones. (Also see fig. 12.25)

littoral and sublittoral zones

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31. Define the littoral zone. (Also see fig. 12.25 and p. 555)

the benthic zone between the highest and the lowest spring tide shorelines