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Phase II: Periop Pt1 > Oesophageal disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Oesophageal disorders Deck (53):
1

Define dyspepsia

Upper GI symptoms typically present for 4+ weeks, including: upper abdominal pain/discomfort, heartburn, acid reflux, NaV

2

Define GORD

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is a chronic condition of abnormal reflux of gastric contents into the oesophagus, which causes predominant symptoms of heartburn and acid regurgitation.

3

What is 'proven GORD'?

Endoscopically-determined reflux disease

4

How does GORD typically present?

Oesophageal symptoms:
Heartburn (25%) - burning retrosternal discomfort
Acid brash - acid or bile regurgitation
Water brash - excessive salivation
Odynophagia - pain on swallowing

5

Name 3 atypical clinical features of GORD

Extra-oesophageal symptoms (atypical):
Chest pain, epigastric pain, bloating
Nocturnal asthma
Chronic cough
Laryngitis (Cherry-Donner syndrome)
Sinusitis

6

Name 5 risk factors for GORD

Lifestyle: obesity, trigger foods, smoking, alcohol, coffee, stress
Drugs: CCBs, anticholinergics, theophylline, BDZs, nitrates
Pregnancy

7

What complications can occur due to GORD?

Oesophagitis
Ulcers
Benign strictures
Iron-deficiency anaemia
Barrett's oesophagus ➔ Oesophageal adenocarcinoma

8

What is Barrett's oesophagus?

A precancerous stage seen in 10-15% GORD, associated with the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (1-10% in next 20yr).

Metaplasia of oesophageal stratified squamous epithelium ➔ simple columnar epithelium

9

Name 3 causes of GORD

Lower oesophageal sphincter problems
Delayed gastric emptying e.g. gastric outlet obstruction
Hiatus hernia
Obesity/pregnancy

10

What may be seen on histology of GORD?

Gastric metaplasia ➔ low risk of malignancy
Intestinal metaplasia ➔ 2 yearly surveillance
Low-grade dysplasia ➔ 90% develop cancer within 6yr
High-grade dysplasia ➔ 50% have adenocarcinoma

11

What is used to grade Barrett's oesophagus?

Prague C and M endoscopic grading system

12

How is Barrett's oesophagus treated?

High-grade dysplasia: Surgical resection, endoscopic mucosal resection, or ablation

13

Name 3 differential diagnoses for GORD

Oesophagitis from:
Corrosives
NSAIDs
Herpes
Candida

Peptic ulcer disease
Cancer
Cardiac cause e.g. MI

14

Describe the pathology of strictures in GORD

Chronic fibrosis and epithelial destruction
Eventual shortening and narrowing of the lower oesophagus ➔ potential fixation and susceptibility to further reflux

15

What are the annual and lifetime recurrence risks of GORD? Which patient group is more likely to relapse?

Annual recurrence risk of untreated GORD: 50%
Lifetime risk of recurrence: 80%

More likely to relapse in people with severe oesophagitis

16

Name 4 indications for investigations for GORD

Age >45
Symptoms last >4wks
Persistent vomiting
GI bleeding or iron deficiency
Palpable mass
Dysphagia
Weight loss
Failed medical treatment

17

Why could OGD be preformed for any presentation of GORD in over 45s?

Exclude oesophageal malignancy

18

How is GORD investigated?

Endoscopy
24h continuous pH monitoring +- manometry
Barium swallow - may show hiatus hernia

19

Describe a positive pH investigation result for GORD

GORD symptoms correspond with pH peaks

20

What physiological features protect against GORD?

Lower oesophageal sphincter
Fundus located posteriorly and superiorly
Crus of diaphragm
Expansion of stomach

21

Outline the lifestyle management of GORD

Smoking cessation
Weight loss
Decrease alcohol consumption
Small regular meals
Avoid trigger foods
Sleep with head of bed raised

22

Outline the initial medical management of GORD

Review and stop any drugs that exacerbate symptoms
-Relax LOS: nitrates, anticholinergics, CCBs
-Damage mucosa: NSAIDs, K+ salts, bisphosphonates

Full-dose Omeprazole or Lansoprazole for 4 weeks
If severe oesophagitis ➔ 8 weeks

23

How should refractory or recurrent GORD be medically managed?

Consider alternative diagnosis
Check patient adherence to initial management
Reinforce lifestyle advice
Further 4wks of PPI at full-dose or double-dose, or
Add H2R antagonist at bedtime
If severe ➔ 8wk PPI

Offer full-dose PPI long-term as maintenance treatment
Switch to H2RA if endoscopy-negative reflux

24

What are the surgical indications for GORD?

Refractory to treatment, persistent, or unexplained
Controlled on PPI/H2RA, but does not want long-term or cannot tolerate treatment
Associated with risk factors for Barrett's oesophagus

Large volume reflux with risk of aspiration pneumonia
Complications: stricture and severe ulceration

25

Outline the surgical management of GORD

Laparoscopic 'Nissen' fundoplication: wrapping the fundus around the lower oesophagus

26

Name and differentiate between the types of hiatus hernias

Sliding hiatus hernia (80%): Gastro-oesophageal junction slides up into the chest. Gross acid reflux is commoner.

Rolling hiatus hernia (20%): Gastro-oesophageal junction remains in chest, but a bulge of the stomach herniates into the chest, alongside the oesophagus. Symptoms include hiccough, 'pressure' in chest, odynophagia.

27

Outline the medical management of hiatus hernias

Weight loss
Symptomatic relief with H2RAs
PPIs
Metoclopramide - promote oesophageal and gastric emptying

28

What investigations are used for suspected hiatus hernia?

Barium swallow*
Upper GI endoscopy - exclude oesophageal mucosal pathology
CT thorax - acute presentation

29

Define hiatus hernia

Presence of part or all of the stomach within the thoracic cavity. Usually by protrusion through the oesophageal hiatus in the diaphragm.

30

Outline the surgical management of hiatus hernias

Prophylactic surgical hernia repair - avoid strangulation
Gastropexy: reduction and fixation of stomach to oesophagus
Nissen fundoplication: if GORD symptoms predominate

31

Name 3 types of oesophageal tumours

Adenocarcinoma (commonest)
Squamous carcinoma
Lipoma and GI stromal tumours
Rhabdomyo(sarco)ma

32

Differentiate between the pathological features of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma

Adenocarcinoma:
Associated with dietary nitrosamines, GORD, and Barrett's oesophagus.
Most commonly occurs in the lower 1/3 of oesophagus.

Squamous carcinoma:
Associated with smoking, alcohol, poor fruit/veg intake, chronic achalasia, and chronic caustic strictures.
May occur anywhere in the oesophagus.

33

Describe the presentation of oesophageal tumours

Painless progressive dysphagia (any new dysphagia, esp in over 45s, is assumed to be tumour until proven otherwise)
Haematemsis - rare
Heartburn/GORD - if LOS involvement
Weight loss/malnourishment
Incidental finding

Disseminated disease: Cervical lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly (mets), epigastric mass (para-aortic lymph)

Local invasion: Dysphonia (RLN palsy), cough and haemoptysis (tracheal), neck swelling (SVC obstruction), Horner's syndrome (Miosis, partial ptosis, anhidrosis)

34

Name 5 risk factors for oesophageal tumours

Obesity
Smoking, alcohol, diet - squamous carcinoma
Age >45 - new dysphagia is tumour till proven otherwise
Barrett's oesophagus
Alchalasia
Radiotherapy

35

How are suspected oesophageal tumours investigated?

Flexible oesophagoscopy and biopsy
Barium swallow if failed intubation or suspected post-cricoid carcinoma (often missed by endoscopy)

36

What staging investigations are done for oesophageal tumours?

Endoluminal USS - assess depth of local invasion
CT - local invasion, lymph involvement, liver
PET - disseminated disease

37

What are the commonest patters of oesophageal cancer metastases?

Lymph nodes
Lung
Liver
Bones
Adrenal glands
Brain

38

Outline the management of oesophageal tumours

Palliative (many present with incurable disease)
-Endoluminal metal stent for dysphagia
-External beam radiotherapy
-Systemic chemotherapy

Potentially curative
-Squamous: Radical chemoradiotherapy or neoadjuvant chemo + resection
-Adeno (small) or high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus: Surgical resection, endoscopic mucosal resection, or ablation
-Adeno (large): Neoadjuvant chemo + resection

39

Define achalasia

A primary oesophageal motility disorder characterised by the absence of oesophageal peristalsis and impaired relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter in response to swallowing.

40

What is the pathology of achalasia?

Degeneration of the myenteric plexus

41

Describe the presentation of achalasia

Slow progressive dysphagia (fluids ➔ solids)
Chest pain/Heartburn
Regurgitation of undigested food (late)
Weight loss
Secondary recurrent aspiration pneumonia

42

How can achalasia be investigated?

Barium swallow
CXR
Manometry
Oesophagoscopy - exclude malignancy

43

What findings may be present on CXR with achalasia?

Fluid filled dilated oesophagus
Right convex opacity behind right cardiac border
Small/absent gastric air bubble
Anterior displacement and bowing of trachea
Patchy alveolar opacities - aspiration pneumonia

44

What findings may be present on barium swallow with achalasia?

Bird beak sign
Oesophageal dilatation
Incomplete LOS relaxation uncoordinated with peristalsis
Pooling/stasis of barium (late)

45

How is achalasia managed?

Endoscopic balloon dilatation (80% success rate)
Heller's cardiomyotomy - division of LO circular muscle
(Complications: reflux, gastro-oesophageal obstruction, oesophageal perforation)
Botulinum injections

*PPI after intervention to minimise risk of GORD

46

Describe the clinical presentation of oesophageal perforation

Neck, chest, or epigastric pain
Dysphagia
Dyspnoea

47

Describe the pathology of oesophageal perforation

Lack of a serosal later (contains collagen and elastin) in the oesophagus makes it more vulnerable.

48

Name 3 causes of oesophageal perforation

Iatrogenic (80%) - esp. endoscopy and stricture dilatation
Trauma (blunt and penetrating)
Foreign body or corrosive material ingestion
Oesophageal cancer
Boerhaave syndrome (15%) - spontaneous transmural perforation of oesophagus secondary to straining or vomiting

49

What is Boerhaave syndrome?

Spontaneous transmural perforation of oesophagus secondary to straining or vomiting.

Most commonly occurs in males aged 40-60 typically after vomiting, drinking and eating binges.

50

Describe the prognosis of oesophageal perforation

Rare but serious medical emergency with a very high mortality rate, esp. if diagnosis is delayed (5-75%)

Infection and inflammatory reaction can quickly spread to nearby tissues and organs. Complications include pneumonia, mediastinitis, sepsis, empyema, and ARDS

51

Outline the medical management of oesophageal perforation

Referral to ICU
NBM + NG suction
Parenteral nutritional support
Broad-spectrum ABX
Analgesia

52

Outline the surgical options for oesophageal perforation

Primary repair
Diversion
Oesophageal resection
Oesophageal stent

53

Name 3 complications of oesophageal cancer

Hoarse voice
Pneumonia
Fistula
Metastases