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Flashcards in Oncology Deck (36):
1

What are some risk factors for cancer

African American over the age of 60 who is immunosupresed due to AIDS, has been smoking and drinking as a coping mechanism. He lives in a warm climate and his work involves croping a farm that grows cruciferous vegetables. With his veges he eats carrots, beef and for lunch his wife makes him roast beef sandwich with orange juice

2

Sunscreen and no smoking are examples of what preventative measures

Primary prevention

3

Screening and detecting cancer are examples of what preventative measures

Secondary prevention

4

When should females start self-breast exam

age 20

5

When and how often should females have clincial breast exams

20-39 and every 3 years
After 40 and every year

6

How often should one have a pap smear

every 3 years

7

What should a female avoid prior to a pap

no douche or sex

8

When and how often should females start mammograms

at age 40 and yearly after that

9

When and how often should anyone have a colonoscopy

at age 50 and 10 years after

10

Should males perform monthly self-breast exam

yes

11

How often should men go for a digital exam and PSA

Yearly after age 50

12

What does Internal radiation do?

Placing radioactive substance inside the client

13

What are the types of internal radioactve

unsealed and sealed

14

What does unsealed radioactive do

it emits radiation and is radioactive for 24-48 hours in a patient.
IT can be given IV or PO

15

What does sealed radioactive do

This is when the client emits radiation and the implant is close to tumor

16

What is the difference between sealed and unsealed

Unsealed - the body fluid emit radiation

17

Do radiation implants emit radiation to environment

Yes

18

This client should be in a what kind of room

Private room

19

What are some precaution measures

Private room
Restrict visitors
Limit time to 30/day
No visitors younger than 16
visitors must stay 6F from source
No pregnant visitors/nurse
mark room with instructions for specific isotope
wear gloves with risk of exposure to body fluids

20

How do you prevent dislodgment

Keep client on bedrest
Decrease fiber
Prevent bladder distention

21

Side effects of external radiation

Altered tast
Erythema
Fatigue
Shedding of skin
Pancytopenia (all blood components decreased)

22

Can you wash away markings and use lotions on markings

NO

23

How long do you protect the site from the sun after completion of therapy

For one year

24

How does chemotherapy work

It works on a cell cycle

25

When is chemo usually scheduled

Every 3-4 weeks

26

side effects of chemo are?

Alopecia
N/V
Anemia
Immunosuppresion
Mucositis
thrombocytopenia

27

What is a vesicant?

Type of chemo

28

What test helps diagnose cervical cancer

Pap smear

29

What tests help diagnose uterine cancer

CA-125 to r/o ovarian involvemnt
D&C dilationa nd curettage and endometrial biopsy

30

Tests to evaluate metastasis

CXR
IVP (intra venous pyelogram)
BE (Barium enema)
CT
Liver and bone scan

31

Tests to help diagnose lung cancer

Bronchoscopy
Sputum specimen
CXR
CT
MRI

32

Tests to help diagnose Laryngeal Cancer

Laryngeal exam
MRI

33

Tests to help diagnose Colorectal Cancer

Screening
Colonoscopy

34

Test to help diagnose bladder cancer

Cystoscopy

35

Tests to diagnose prostate cancer

Lab work:
PSA increase
Alkaline phonsphate increase
Acid phosphatase increase
Biopsy

36

Tests to diagnose stomach cancer

Upper GI, CT, EDG (esophagogastroduodenoscopy)