Oncology Flashcards Preview

Advanced Med/Surg > Oncology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Oncology Deck (235):
1

Symptoms of Hypercalcemia

  • fatigue
  • loss of appetite
  • N&V
  • constipation
  • polyuria
  • severe muscle weakness
  • loss of DTRs
  • paralytic ileus
  • dehydration
  • EKG changes

2

time when bone marrow and WBC are at their lowest points varying with different chemo drugs

NADIR

3

process during radiation therapy in which the cancer cell's nucelus are rearranged causing a release of energy and eventually cell death or inability to divide

ionizing

4

type of cancer treatment that modifies patient's biological response to tumor cells and can result in life-threatening edema

Immunotherapy: Biological Response Modifiers (BRMs)

5

percentage of actively dividing cells within a tumor (the higher the number, the faster the tumor growth)

Mitotic Index

6

Treatment of SVC Syndrome

  • high-dose radiation
  • metal stent in vena cava

7

common sites of melanoma cancer metasasis are: 

GI tract & lymph nodes

8

chemo given early in remission as an intent to cure leukemia

consolidation therapy

9

occurs when chemo leaks out in the surrounding tissues of an IV site causing severe tissue damage, pain, and tissue loss

extravasation

10

Medications given for Hormone Manipulation

  • Androgen
  • Estrogen
  • Anti-androgens
  • Anti-estrogens

11

It takes bone marrow ___ to ___ weeks to recover after induction therapy.

2 - 3

12

type of cancer surgical treatment in which cells are removed for biopsy

diagnostic surgery

13

Signs of Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

  • facial edema
  • periorbital edema in the morning
  • Stokes' sign (edema in the neck)
  • arm/hand edema
  • Pemberton's sign (facial flushing)
  • dyspnea
  • epitaxis (nose bleed)

l

14

During TLS, _______ & _______ are released into the blood.

potassium & purines

15

Causes of Hodgkins Lymphoma

  • viral
  • exposure to chemicals
  • no identifiable cause

16

type of cancer surgical treatment in which tissues are repaired (breast augmentation, bowel reattachment

reconstruction or rehabilitation

17

cell death

apoptis

18

Na+ level of <110 result in ______.

coma

19

Someone with Bloom Sundrome is more likely to develop __________.

leukemia

20

Men need yearly rectal exams after age ____.

50

21

older CINV medication that has bad S/E

metoclopramide (Reglan)

22

characteristic of a normal cell in which is stops growing if it comes in contact with another non-self cell

contact inhibition

23

type of cancer surgical treatment in which a polyp is removed or a masectomy is done before breast cancer develops

prophylactic surgery

24

Treatment for Spinal Cord Compression

  • early recognition
  • high-dose corticosteroids
  • high-dose radiation
  • surgery
  • external back or neck brace

25

chemotherapy drug that resembles natural metabolites but disrupts metbolic processes and can inhibit synthesis

Antimetabolites

26

Antimitotic Agents (Plant Alkaloids) Drug

Vincristine

27

Symptoms of Lung Cancer

  • Cough  - chronic that does not go away
    • Hoarseness
  • Sputum
  • Hemoptysis
  • Dyspnea
  • Decreased endurance level
  • Difficulty swallowing

28

After radiation, skin cannot be exposed to sun for _____.

1 year

29

patient with a history of prostate cancer complaining of low back pain should be evaluated for:

metastasis

30

Someone with Klinefelter Syndrome is more likely to develop ___________.

breast cancer

31

chemotherapy side effect caused by antimitotics and platinum-based drugs (Cysplatin) that consists of loss of sensation in hands, feet, genitalia, pain, loss of taste & constipation

Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN)

32

type of leukemia with Philadelphia chromosome

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

33

Treatment for Extravasation

  • Cold or warm compress
  • Antidotes
  • Chemoprotective agents

34

Dietary Habits to Reduce Cancer Risk:

  • Avoid nitrites (bologna, hotdogs)
  • Do not grill on charcoal
  • Decrease fats
  • Decrease red meat
  • Decrease alcoholic drinks
  • Increase bran (more whole grains)
  • Increase cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cabbage)
  • Recommended Vit A & C

35

drug given to chemotherapy patients to stimulate bone marrow to produce RBC to prevent anemia

Epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit)

36

selective destruction of cancer cells via chemical reaction triggered by different types of laser light

Photodynamic Therapy (Laser)

37

For extravasation of Cisplatin & Mechlorethamine, recommended treatment is:

  • Sodium Thiosulfate 1/6M
    • 4 mL of 10% sodium thiosulfate + 6 mL water
    • instilled via multiple injections in and around the area using a small gauge needle

38

Causes of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

  • Unknown Cause
  • Immunosuppressive disorders (HIV)
  • H. Pylori (MALT)
    • grows in GI system
  • Epstein Barr virus

39

intense combo of chemo given to achieve rapid & complete remission

Induction Therapy

40

chracteristic of a normal cell in which the nucleus does not occupy much space within a cell

nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio

41

cancer of the lymph tissue due to abnormal growth of leukocytes and lymphocytes

malignant lymphomas

42

abnormal growth of cell not needed for normal function

neoplasia

43

TLS is most common ____ to ____ hours after first dose of chemo.

24-48

44

chemotherapy drug that stops mitosis of the cells

Antimitotic Agents (Plant Alkaloids)

45

Inherited types of cancer include:

breast, prostate, ovarian

46

Risk Factors for Lung Cancer:

  • SMOKING
    • Greater # of pack years= greater risk
  • Second-hand smoke
  • Family history
  • Radiation to the chest or breast
  • Asbestos, chromium, nickel, arsenic, soot or tar
  • Radon
  • Air pollution
  • Beta carotene supplements with heavy smoking
  • HIV

47

classification of primary tumor indicating the tumor's size and/or local extent of the tumor

T1 - T4

48

type of cancer treatment that locally destroys cancer cells with minimal damage to surrounding normal cells

Radiation Therapy

49

syndrome in which a lung cancer tumor envelops the superior vena cava and cuts off blood supply

Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

50

Antitumor Antibodies can cause cardiac toxicity so __________ is also given to protect against that.

Dexrazoxane (Zinecard)

51

Etoposide (VePesid) interacts with ________ so it should be avoided for 2 days prior to and after dose.

grapefruit juice

52

common sites of breast cancer metasasis are: 

bone, lung, & liver

53

radiation therapy isotopes that cause patient to emit radiation but do not pass into urine, stool or bodily fluid (i.e. implants for cervical or prostate cancer)

sealed isotopes

54

CINV drug that is used for anticapatory N&V because it calms the nerves

lorazepam (Ativan)

55

chemotherapy drug that interferes with DNA synthesis causing mutant cell DNA resulting in cell death

Antitumor Antibodies

56

Secondary Prevention for Cancer includes:

  • Regular screening
  • Genetic screening
  • Altering damaged genes

57

sensitivity to light after phtodynamic therapy lasts for up to ___ weeks

12

58

Early DIC is treated with ________.

heparin

59

chemotherapy side effect associated with high dose therapy consisting of memory loss & loss of concentration

"Chemobrain"

60

type of lung cancer that makes up 10 - 15% of all lung cancers

Small Cell Carcinoma

61

stages of lung cancer in which the cancer is still only in the lungs

Stage 0 - II

62

Treatment for Hypercalcemia

  • oral hydration
  • IV fluids (NS)
  • calcitonin (temporary)
  • glucocorticoids (temporary)
  • dialysis

63

Treatment of Lung Cancer includes:

  • Surgical resection
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Photodynamic therapy

64

type of cancer surgical treatment in which the tumor is debulked (i.e. ovarian cancer)

control surgery

65

Interventions for Stomatitis

  • Frequent oral assessment & hygiene
  • Avoid alcohol mouthwash
  • Clean toothbrushes in dishwasher
  • Viscous Lidocaine

66

Colonoscopies are recommended every 10 years after age ___.

50

67

To allow for greater destruction of the cancer cells, radiation is usually given in _______ doses.

divided

68

normal part of human cells that are turned on and off by different substances but carcinogens can turn on and never turn off

oncogenes

69

Someone with Turner's Syndrome is more likely to develop ___________ or ____________.

leukemia or colorectal cancer

70

uncontrolled production of immature, non-functioning WBC with CBC showing very high WBC count and bone marrow containing abnormal chromosomes

leukemia

71

Injury Prevention Measures for CIPN

  • Protect body areas where neuropathy has occurred
  • Make sure shoes are big enough
  • Buy shoes in afternoon/evening to account for swelling
  • Do not wear new shoes for longer than 2 hours at a time
  • Avoid point-toe shoes or high-heel shoes
  • Inspect feet daily
  • Avoid extreme temperatures
  • Test water temperature w/ thermometer
  • Use potholders when cooking
  • Use gloves when washing dishes or gardening
  • Do not eat steaming hot foods
  • Drink 2-3 L of non-alcoholic fluids/day
  • Rise slowly from seated position
  • Look at feet & ground to avoid tripping
  • Avoid area rugs
  • Use handrails when going up or down steps

72

Primary Prevention of Cancer includes:

  • Avoidance of carcinogens
  • Modification of associated factors
  • Removal of "at-risk" tissues
  • Chemoprevention
  • Vaccination

73

type of lung cancer that makes up 85 - 90 % of all lung cancers caused by smoking & high number of pack years

Non-small Cell Carcinoma

74

 platelets < 50,000/ mm3

patient at high risk for bleeding

75

What medication is given to chemotherapy patients to reduce risk of infection?

Filgastrim (Neupogen)

76

Celebrex/ aspirin reduces the risk of ___________ cancer.

colorectal

77

Risk Factors for Melanoma

  • Sun exposure
    • Blistering sun burn as child = biggest risk factor
  • Moles
    • The more moles, the more likely skin cancer is
  • Skin type
    • Fair, light hair, light eyes
  • Personal history
  • Weakened immune system
  • HIV
  • Family history
    • First degree relative- 50% greater risk
  • Male gender

78

A, B, C, D, E of Skin Cancer Lesions

Assymetrical

Borders uneven

Color (multiple)

Diameter > 1/4 in

Evolving

79

oncologic emergency in which water is reabsorbed to excess by the kidneys and put back into systemic circulation leading to extremely low Na+

Sydrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)

80

Side Effects of Antitumor Antibodies

  • N/V
  • Stomatitis

81

Chemotherapy drugs given for lung cancer:

  • Etoposide
  • Carboplatin (Taxol)
  • Gemcitabine (Cisplatin)

82

For extravasation of Dactinomycin, Daunorubicin, Doxorubicin, Idarubicin, and Mitomycin, the recommended treatment is:

  • Cold Compress
    • applied immediately for 20 minutes
    • then QID x 3 days
  • Dimethyl sulfoxide 50-90%
    • apply 1-2 mL to IV site QID x 14 days

83

Antimitotic Agents (Plant Alkaloids) are used for:

  • Leukemia
  • Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Ewing’s Sarcoma

84

platelets < 30,000/ mm3

at high risk for spontaneous, uncontrollable bleeding

85

device that measures radiation that you come into contact with

dosimeter badge

86

characteristic of normal cell in which all the cells look alike

specific morphology

87

Side Effects of Chemotherapy

  • Risk of Infection (Neutropenia)
  • Anemia
  • Thrombocytopenia

88

Chemotherapy dosage is based on ______.

weight

89

Alkylating Agent Drugs

  • Cytoxan
  • Cisplatin

90

Familial Clustering types of cancer include:

breast & melanoma

91

type of radiation used when the cancer is close to the skin's surface and can also be placed within a tumor

beta particles

92

drug given to chemotherapy patients to increase production of platelets to prevent thrombocytopenia with main S/E of fluid retention

Oprelvekin (Neumega)

93

TLS can lead to _______.

acute kidney injury

94

drug given in immunotherapy that enhances the immune system

Cytokines

95

the amount of time for a tumor to double in size

doubling time

96

The Seven Warning Signs of Cancer (C.A.U.T.I.O.N.)

  • Changes in bowel or bladder habits
  • A sore that does not heal
  • Unusual bleeding or discharge
  • Thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere
  • Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
  • Obvious change in a wart or mole
  • Nagging cough or hoarseness

97

Side effects of Bevacizumab (Avastin)

  • HTN
  • impaired wound healing 
  • bone marrow suppression

98

Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

  • masculinizing effects (women)
  • gynecomastia (men)
  • DVT
  • Acne
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Liver dysfunction
  • Bone loss

99

TLS is commonly seen in ______ cancer & _______.

small cell lung; lymphoma

100

Symptoms of Hodgkins Lymphoma

  • large, painless lymph node(s)
  • lymph node growth after consumption of alcohol
  • "B Symtpoms"
    • fever
    • night sweats
    • weight loss

101

Subtypes of Non-small Cell Carcinoma

  • pleomorphic
  • carcinoid
  • unclassified

102

Adverse Effects of Antitumor Antibodies

  • Organ toxicity
  • Pulmonary fibrosis

103

describes the exact location of the cancer, degree of metastasis (types= clinical, surgical, and pathologic)

Staging

104

type of radiation therapy delivered from radiation source inside the patient's body so that unsealed isotopes are eliminated in the urine and stool making the patient's waste radioactive

Brachytherapy

105

Oncologic Life-Threatening Emergencies

  • Sepsis
  • DIC
  • SIADH
  • Spinal Cord Compression
  • Hypercalcemia
  • SVC Synddrome
  • TLS

106

most common acute leukemia in adults 

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)

107

 cancer treatment drug that inhibits the activation of tyosine kinases

Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

108

For patients at risk for TLS, draw labs Q ____  hours on day 1 then Q ____ hours for several days.

6; 12

109

CINV medication (Serotonin Antagonist) that can be worn as a patch and blocks the vomiting trigger zone in the brain...main S/E is headache

odansetron (Zofran)

110

Late DIC is treated with _______.

clotting factors

111

Side Effects of Topoisomerase Inhibitors

  • Myelosuppression
  • Diarrhea

112

encapsulated tumor cells with specific differentiated functions and normal number of chromosomes that look like the parent cells that do not migrate and only expand hyperplastically 

benign tumor cells

113

Antimetabolites are used for:

  • Acute Leukemia
  • Breast Cancer
  • Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

114

increase in number of cells

hyperplasia

115

expansion of tumor cell without invading surrounding tissue

hyperplastic expansion

116

chemotherapy drug that binds to the topoisomerase molecule blocking the ability to bind to DNA leading to cell death

Topoisomerase Inhibitors

117

classification of primary tumor meaning there is carcinoma in situ

TIS

118

greatest risk factor for developing cancer

age

119

side effect of chemo induction therapy

myelosuppression which leads to neutropenia and increased risk of infection

120

What rules out pneumonia when testing for lung cancer?

CXR

121

Prevention of TLS includes:

  • Drink 3 - 5 L of water spread throughout the day
    • Need UOP of > 100 mL/hour
  • Diuretics
  • Allopurinol (if uric acid elevated)
  • Kayexelate (if potassium elevated)

122

genetic trait in which hundred- thousands of polyps arise in the colon

Familial polyps

123

Side Effects of Antimetabolites

  • N/V
  • Alopecia
  • Stomatitis

124

type of cancer treatment drug that blocks the epidermal growth factor from binding to cell surface receptor by binding to the growth factor of cells in response to the activation of HERP2 gene and prevents cancer cell division...used for ovarian & colon cancers

Epidermal Growth Factor/Receptor Inhibitor- Trastuzamab (Herceptin)

125

first step of cancer development in which oncogenes are over-expressed due to carcinogens (initiators) leading to excessive cell division

Initiation

126

SIADH is most common in ____ cancer.

lung

127

most common leukemia in adults > 50 years old

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

128

type of radiation therapy delivered from outside source so patient is not radioactive after therapy

teletherapy

129

Topoisomerase Inhibitors can be given ___ or ____.

IV or PO

130

type of radiation that is used to penetrate deep tissues

gamma rays

131

Subtypes of Small Cell Carcinoma

  • Oat cell
  • Combined small cell

132

most common type of skin cancer that is most common on the head or neck that grows slowly and can return

basal cell

133

stage of lung cancer in which it has metastasized throughout the body

Stage IV

134

stage of lung cancer in which the cancer has spread to the diaphragm and/or chest wall

Stage III

135

In order to prevent melanoma, stay in the shade especially from ____ am to ___ pm.

11 am to 3 pm

136

Primary Prevention for Lung Cancer

  • Tobacco Cessation
  • Smoke-free environments

137

For extravasation of Etoposide, Paclitaxel, Teniposide, Vinvlastine, Vincristine, and Vinorelbine, recommended treatment is:

  • Warm Compress
    • applied immediately for 20 minutes
    • then QID x 3 days
  • Hyaluronidase
    • 150 units into multiple sites using small gauge needle x 1 day

138

CINV medication (Neurokinin Receptor Antagonist) that is used for acute & delayed N&V given 1 hour prior to chemo, day 2, and day 3 of chemo...interferes w/ Coumadin & contraception

aprepitant (Emend)

139

classification of primary tumor meaning the tumor cannot be assessed

Tx

140

Formula for Pack Years

(packs/day) X (# of years)

141

Side Effects of Imatinib Mesylate (Gleevec)

  • fluid retention
  • electrolyte imbalances
  • bone marrow suppression

142

any lymphoid cancer without a Reed-Sternberg cell that spreads easily and less orderly and cannot be easily treated with radiation

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

143

Tomoxofen reduces the risk of _______ cancer.

breast

144

patients on BRMs will be admitted to the ____

ICU

145

Treatment of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma includes:

  • Chemotherapy (#1)
  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • Radiation (if it’s in one area)
  • Stem cell transplant (if all else fails)

146

Symptoms of Hodgkins Lymphoma

  • Generalized lymphadenopathy
    • swollen lymph nodes all over the body
  • "B Symtpoms"
    • fever
    • night sweats
    • weight loss

147

third step of cancer development in which the cell changes over time and the tumor grows to at least 1 cm and vascularizes which makes it much easier to spread

Progression

148

Antitumor Antibodies are used for:

  • Leukemia
  • Wilm’s tumor

149

principle that states the intensity of radiation decreases with the distance from the radiation-emitting source

Inverse Square Law

150

type of therapy in which laser is directed towards cancer cells

Photodynamic Therapy

151

type of cancer treatment drug that binds to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) preventing binding with receptors on endothelial cell surfaces present in blood vessels and keeps tumors from developing vascular systems (preventing metastasis)

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibitors- Bevacizumab (Avastin)

152

With Epidural Growth Factor Inhibitors, a biopsy of the tumor is taken and if it's ______, Herceptin may be used.

HERP 2+

153

oncologic emergency that most occurs with bone metastasis in which calcium is released from the bone into blood stream

Hypercalcemia

154

Topoisomerase Inhibitors are used for: 

  • Testicular cancer
  • Small cell lung cancer

155

bronchial washing fluid will contain _________ in lung cancer when it is pulled from the lungs

cancer cells

156

type of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor uses to treat Philadelphia chromosome & meyloid leukemia, metastatic GIST, & lymphoma given orally and well-tolerated that puts patients into remission

Imatinib Mesylate (Gleevec)

157

sealed isotopes are only radioactive if they are ________

outside of the body

158

temporary loss of hair 

alopecia

159

diagnostic test that can show if cancer has metastasized throughout the body

PET scan

160

Yearly mammograms are recommended after age ____

40

161

tissue ulceration in the mouth

stomatitis

162

average dose scheduling for chemotherapy

4 - 12 times every 3 - 4 weeks

163

the only drug approved for Stage IV Melanoma

•Lymphokine interlukin 2 (Prolukin)

164

type of skin cancer that appears on the face, ears, lips or hands and is deeper in the skin than basal cell

squamous cell

165

normal number of chromosomes in cells

23

166

Best Practice for Care of Patient with Myelosuppression & Neutropenia

  • Private room
  • Handwashing
  • Room & Bathroom cleaned Q day
  • Change wound dressings Q day
  • Change IV tubing Q day
  • Monitor WBC especially Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) Q day
  • V/S Q 4 hours
  • Inspect IV sites Q 4 hours
  • Inspect mouth Q 8 hours
  • Inspect skin/mucous membranes Q 8 hours
  • Use dedicated equipment
  • Limit healthcare personell in room
  • Obtain specimens for culture
  • Assist with coughing & deep breathing
  • Limit visitors to healthy adults
  • Use aseptic technique
  • Avoid Foley
  • No fresh flowers or plants in room
  • Teach patient to avoid raw food, pepper, & paprika

 

167

General Disease-Related Consequences of Cancer

  • Reduced immune and blood-producing function
  • Altered GI structure and function
  • Motor and sensory deficits
  • Chronic/ acute pain
  • Decreased respiratory function
  • Reduced oxygenation
  • Cachexia

168

diagnostic test that can reveal malignancy

cytology

169

teletherapy radiation in which a precise amount of high-dose radiation is given to precise area of the body

Sterotactic Body Radiotherapy

170

To prevent TLS,  monitor _____, ______ levels & _____ levels.

CBC; BUN/creat; uric acid levels

171

BRCA2 on genetic testing means increased risk for:

  • breast cancer in men
  • leukemia

172

classification of primary tumor meaning there is no evidence of a primary tumor

T0

173

Percussion of cancer in the lung will be _____.

dull

174

Side Effects of Antimitotic Agents (Plant Alkaloids)

  • Neurotoxicity
  • Neuropathy

175

common sites of prostate cancer metasasis are: 

bone (spine/legs), pelvic nodes

176

In leukemia, CBC w/ Diff will show:

  • Anemia
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Abnormal WBC count

177

Someone with Down's Syndrome is more likely to develop ___________.

leukemia

178

second step of cancer development in which the tumor starts to form and growth is enhanced in the initiated cell promoted by insulin and estrogen and can last months to years

Promotion

179

Environmental Risk Factors for Leukemia:

Exposure to...

  • Ionizing Radiation
  • Chemicals (hair dye)
  • Drugs (chemotherapy)

180

Precautions for Patient with Sealed Isotope Implants

  • Private room and bath
  • Radiation sign on door
  • Keep door closed
  • Nurses wear dosimeter badge
  • Lead apron
  • Limit visitors
    • no pregnant women or children < 16 years
  • NEVER TOUCH RADIATION SOURCE

181

common sites of colorectal cancer metasasis are: 

liver & lymph nodes

182

chemotherapy drug that disrupts DNA and RNA synthesis causing cell death

Alkylating Agents

183

Normal Cells Most Affected by Chemotherapy

  • skin
  • hair
  • intestinal tissues
  • spermatocytes
  • blood-forming cells

184

Patient Teaching for Photdynamic Therapy

  • Bring protective clothing & UV protection sunglasses
  • Arrange for ride home
  • Wrap body in sheet until in the house
  • Cover windows
  • Use low-watt light bulbs
  • Drink plenty of fluids
  • Slowly expose skin to sun light after 12 weeks

185

describes the cellular aspects of the cancer and compares the cancer cell w/ normal parent tissue

Grading System

186

chemo (can be PO) given just be to absolutely sure of remission for months to years after remission is achieved

Maintenance Therapy

187

In bone marrow aspiration, what will show type of leukemia a patient has?

protein markers on cell surface

188

Na+ level of 115-120 results in ________.

muscle cramps

189

step of cancer development in which the cancer cells break away from the primary tumor and colonize in remote areas of the body

Metastasis

190

Side Effects of Radiation

  • Local skin changes and hair loss
  • Altered taste sensations
  • Fatigue
  • Inflammatory response

191

In a patient with lung cancer, auscultation may reveal ______ heart tones.

muffled

192

Antitumor Antibody Drug

Doxorubicin (Adriamycin)

193

common sites of lung cancer metasasis are: 

brain & bone

194

BRCA1 on genetic testing means increased risk for what type of cancers?

  • breast
  • ovarian
  • fallopian tube
  • pancreatic
  • peritoneal

195

Tumor Lysis Syndrome means that ______ is working.

chemotherapy

196

In order to prevent melanoma, use a broad spectrum suncreen with SPF > ____

15

30 if outside for extended time

197

common sites of primary brain cancer metasasis are: 

central nervous system

198

most common leukemia in children

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)

199

Secondary Prevention for Lung Cancer

Screening via CT

200

describes tumor chromosomes as normal or abnormal (some cancers have their own chromosomes)

Ploidy

201

type of cancer surgical treatment in which the whole cancer is removed (i.e. skin cancer)

cure surgery

202

Check chemotherapy IV site _____.

hourly

203

Stage ___ or ___ Melanoma patients can enroll in experiemental treatments

III or IV

204

205

_____ must be worn during oral and IV chemotherapy administration because it can be absorbed through the skin

PPE

206

Chemo is often given through a ____ or _____.

port or central line

207

 side effect of chemotherapy in which tissue ulceration occurs in the mucous membranes

mucositis

208

Antimetabolite Drug

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)

209

enlargement of a cell

hypertrophy

210

Leukemia has a poor prognosis if the CBC shows large number of ______ cells.

blast

211

the amount of radiation delivered to a tissue

exposure

212

Topoisomerase Inhibitor Drug

Etoposide (VePesid)

213

type of cancer surgical treatment in which a second surgery is performed to confirm the entire cancer was removed (common with ovarian cancer)

second-look surgery

214

type of cancer surgical treatment in which the tumor is debulked to relieve pain and improve quality of life

palliation

215

Apply ___ oz of sunscreen ____ minutes before going outside.

1 oz; 30 min

216

characteristic of normal cells in which they adhere to one another and are non-migratory

tight adherence

217

Adverse Reactions of Alkylating Agents

  • SIADH
  • Hemorrhagic cystitis (with Cytoxan only)

218

S/E of Interleukins & Interferon

  • flu-like symptoms
  • severe inflammatory reactions
  • peripheral neuropathy
  • rash

219

Treatment for Melanoma 

  • Surgical resection (preferred method- high cure rate)
  • Chemotherapy
    • DTIC- drug of choice
  • Immunotherapy
    • Lymphokine interlukin 2 (Prolukin)
    • Interferon Alpha 2B (many S/E, not first choice)
  • Gene therapy
  • Clinical trials
  • Chemical peeling
  • Laser therapy
  • Photodynamic therapy
  • Radiation therapy

220

Yearly breast exams are recommended after age ____

40

221

Treatment for Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Radiation of lymph nodes

222

Drugs used to treat Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea & Vomiting (CINV)

  • Odansetron (Zofran)
  • Aprepitant (Emend)
  • Dexamethasone (Decadron)
  • Metoclopramide (Reglan)
  • Lorazepam (Ativan)

223

Breast exams are recommended every 3 years for ages ____ to ____

20-39

224

cell duplication

mitosis

225

radiation therapy isotopes that pose the risk of exposure if not handled properly

unsealed isotopes

226

tumor cells with abnormal number of chromosomes that lose characteristic of the parent cell with a large nucleus and no function with loose adherence and no apoptosis or contact inhibition

malignant tumor cells

227

After radiation, patients can no longer make _____.

saliva

228

amount of radiation received and absorbed by the tissue

radiation dose

229

type of lymphoma occurring mostly in teens/ young adults and adults in 50s & 60s that involves a single or chain of lymph nodes or Reed-Sternberg cells

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

230

stage of lung cancer in which the tumor is hidden or there is no obvious tumor seen 

occult stage

231

Diagnostic Tests for Lung Cancer include:

  • Chest x-ray
  • CT
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Bronchial washing
  • Thorascoscopy
  • Fine Needle aspiration
  • Cytology
  • PET scan

232

Alkylating Agents are used for: 

  • Leukemia
  • Lymphoma

233

cut in the chest wall between the ribs to aspirate cells from the lungs

thorascosopy

234

process by which hormone medications are given to decrease the amount of hormones required by the tumors to grow to slow the growth of the cancer

Hormone Manipulation

235

oncologic emergency in which large numbers of tumor cells are destroyed rapidly resulting in intracellular contents being released into blood stream fater than the kidneys can eliminate them

Tumor Lysis Syndrome