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ADN 214 > Oncology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Oncology Deck (32):
1

What is cancer?

- a large group of diseases (over 100 types) characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells

2

How is cancer confirmed?

Biopsy

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How does cancer develop?

- when the body’s normal control mechanisms stop working
- old cells do not die and cells grow out of control forming new, abnormal cells
- these extra cells may form a mass of tissue, called a tumor

4

Kinds of cancers

- carcinomas
- leukemias
- lymphomas
- sarcomas

5

Carcinomas

- begin in the skin or tissues that line the internal organs

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Sarcomas

- develop in the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle or other connective tissues

7

Leukemia

- begins in the blood and bone marrow
- most common in children
- immature WBCs in bloodstream
- diagnosed by: CBC, bone marrow biopsy

8

Lymphomas

- start in the immune cells (lymph nodes and tissues)
- hodgkins and non-hodgkins
- develops in nodes and glands of the lymphatic system

9

S/s of cancer

- change in bowel/bladder habits
- sores that don’t heal
- unusual bleeding or discharge
- lumps or thickening of breasts or other part of body
- indigestion or dysphagia
- recent changes in wart or mole
- persistent coughing or hoarseness
- * unintentional weight loss *
- fever/night sweats

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Difference between benign and malignant?

- benign: non cancerous
- malignant: cancerous

11

Hodgkins vs. non-hodgkins lymphoma

- hodgkins contains the Reed-Sternberg cell

12

Cancer by site: skin

- three types: basal cell, squamous cell, melanoma
- cancers derived from the epidermal layers with the same names

13

Cancer by site: lung

- often no symptoms until advanced stage
- non-small cell: most common (~85%)
- small-cell: quicker, higher mortality (~10-15%)

14

Cancer by site: female breast

- most are ducal carcinomas
- usually > age 50
- 1 in 8 women
- women with early menarche, late menopause at higher risk
- breastfeeding lowers risk

15

Cancer by site: prostate

- mainly in older men
- as men age, prostate may enlarge and block urethra or bladder causing difficulty in urination or sexual function (BPH)

16

Cancer by site: colon and rectum

- of large intestine cancers: ~70% in colon, ~30% in rectum
- third most common overall
- s/s: bloody stool, change in bowel habits

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Cancer by site: uterus

- most common gynecological malignancy
- usually >40 years of age, most frequently >60
- s/s: abnormal uterine bleeding

18

What causes cancer?

- lifestyle
- environment
- family hx

19

Lifestyle risks

- smoking
- diet high in fat and low in fruits and veggies
- lack of exercise
- unprotected exposure to sun, UV rays
- obesity

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Environmental risks

- secondhand smoke
- air pollution
- industrial pollution
- chemical exposures

21

Inherited risks

- less than 15% of cancers inherited
- gene mutations linked to some inherited cancers
- cancers linked to inherited gene mutations: colon, breast, ovarian, prostate, skin

22

Cancers you can be screened for

- colon
- breast
- cervical
- prostate
- testicular
- skin

23

Colon cancer screening guidelines

- age > 50, unless family hx
- yearly fecal occult blood
- flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years
- double-contrast barium enema every 5 years
- colonoscopy every 10 years

24

Breast cancer screening guidelines

- yearly mammograms starting at 50
- clinical breast exam every three years from 20-50, every year at 50 and beyond
- report any breast change promptly
- family hx should start mammograms earlier plus additional tests

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Cervical cancer screening guidelines

- annual pap starting at sexual activity or 18
- investigate pros and cons of HPV vaccine

26

Prostate cancer screening guidelines

- test PSA
- doc performs DRE, recommended yearly >50 years

27

Testicular cancer screening guidelines

- recommended self-exams and by doc during routine checkups
- any unusual mass should be reported to doc immediately

28

Skin cancer screening guidelines

- patients should perform monthly self-exams
- ABCD’s of melanoma: asymmetry, border (jagged or irregular), color, diameter (larger than 8mm)
- protect skin w hats, sleeves, sunscreen
- become familiar w moles, freckles, other abnormalities
- report changes immediately

29

Cancer fighting substances in foods

- antioxidants
- dietary fiber
- carotenoids
- flavonoids

30

Limit alcohol to no more than

- men: 2 drinks per day
- women: 1 drink per day

31

Normal WBC count

4.5-11

32

Normal platelet count

150,000-400,000