OnlineMedEd: Nephrology - "Sodium" Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in OnlineMedEd: Nephrology - "Sodium" Deck (11):
1

Disorders of sodium levels are actually disorders of _______________.

free water movement

Free water is not a measure of volume status. It is a measure of tonicity and the ADH pathway.

2

Hyponatremia causes water to move _______________.

from the vessels to the interstitium

3

Hypernatremia causes water to move ______________.

from the interstitium to the vessels

4

Dustyn recommends breaking hyponatremia and hypernatremia into mild, moderate, and severe states. Review the signs/symptoms of each.

• Mild: asymptomatic (discovered incidentally)
• Moderate: nausea, vomiting, headache
• Severe: coma, seizures

5

Review the treatments for mild, moderate, and severe hypernatremia.

• Mild: PO H2O
• Moderate: IV NS
• Severe: D5W or 1/2 NS

6

Review the treatments for mild, moderate, and severe hyponatremia.

• Mild: disease-specific
• Moderate: IVF
• Severe: 3% NaCl

7

Go through the protocol for determining the subtype of hyponatremia.

First, review the formula for serum osmolarity: 2 x Na + glucose/18 + BUN/2.8. It should be 280.
• If it is isotonic hyponatremia (meaning SOsm ~280), then it is likely pseudohyponatremia, caused by fats and proteins.
• If it is hypertonic hyponatremia (meaning SOsm greater than 280), then it is likely due to hyperglycemic hyponatremia.
• If it is hypotonic hyponatremia (meaning SOsm less than 280), then you need to determine if they are volume-up (e.g., CHF), volume-down (dehydration), or euvolemic (RATS).

8

List the treatments for the kinds of hypotonic hyponatremia.

• Volume-up: diuresis
• Volume-down: IVF
• Euvolemic:
- Renal tubular acidosis
- Addison's disease: corticosteroid and mineralocorticoid replacement
- Thyroid disease:
- SIADH: volume restriction, gentle diuresis, or demeclocyline

9

Urine sodium is a surrogate for ______________.

aldosterone activity

10

Urine osmolarity is a surrogate for ______________.

ADH activity

11

How fast should you correct hyponatremia?

No faster than 0.25 per hour or a max of 6 in one day.

The caveat to this is that you need to give 3% NaCl until the person stops seizing if they are having hyponatremic seizures.

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