Onset of Labor, Early Labor, First Stage of Labor Flashcards Preview

NM704 Labor & Birth > Onset of Labor, Early Labor, First Stage of Labor > Flashcards

Flashcards in Onset of Labor, Early Labor, First Stage of Labor Deck (58)
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1

admission before active labor increases risk of:

use of oxytocin
rate of C/S
use of epidural
fetal scalp electrode
IUPCs

2

ketonuria is indicative of:

inadequate nutrition

3

Friedman's definition of prolonged latent phase of labor

greater than 20 hours in a nulliparous woman and more than 14 hours in a multiparous woman

4

which medication has the longest half-life?
Morphine
Nubain
Demerol
Fentanyl

Demerol

5

SE of epidural

fever, hypotension

6

epidurals increase risk of:

operative vaginal birth

7

dextrose IV fluids in labor increases risk of:

newborn lactic acidosis, jaundice and hypoglycemia

8

women _____________ are more likely to experience:
diagnosis of active phase arrest
amnionitis
C/S birth
oxytocin augmentation
epidural use
fetal scalp electrodes
IUPCs

admitted prior to active labor

9

Friedman defined the onset of ACTIVE labor as the time when:

the RATE of dilation increases

10

Friedman found that the median dilation at the point of faster progress of labor (his definition of active labor) was about ___ centimeters

3

11

Friedman himself points out that is not accurate to define active labor based on _____________ as there is considerable variation among women

a particular dilation

12

Contemporary research shows that many women are not in active labor until __ - __ centimeters

5-6

13

based on the false assumption that this will be useful in diagnosing the phase of labor BUT there is no evidence to support this practice and it may have the negative result of increasing fatigue

recommendation of walking in early labor

14

_________________ in early labor should be based on individual woman's circumstance NOT duration of early labor

medical intervention (sleeping pills, sedatives, etc.)

15

the CNM can increase diagnostic accuracy of ____ by:
-taking a thorough history
-knowing the reasons for false negatives/positives
-NOT relying on just one diagnostic test

ROM

16

causes for false positives in ROM pH testing:

blood
semen
urine
BV infection
trich infection

17

cause for false positives in ROM pH testing:

not enough fluid present

18

drying amniotic fluid for 10 minutes then using microscope to observe for ferning

aborization (ferning)

19

causes for false positives in ROM aborization testing:

possible fingerprints on slide
cervical mucus
semen
significant amount of blood

20

cause for false positives in ROM aborization testing:

not enough fluid present
operator error

21

Actim PROM
Amnisure ROM
tests that detect biomarkers present in amniotic fluid

rapid immunoassays

22

causes for false positives in ROM rapid immunoassay testing:

significant bleeding
higher vaginal concentration of biomarkers with labor

23

causes for false negatives in ROM rapid immunoassay testing:

not enough fluid present
operator error

24

some studies show high false ___________ rates of rapid immunoassay ROM tests if there are any symptoms of labor

positive

25

sensitivity is high in rapid immunoassays meaning false _________ are low

negatives

26

false ___________ may be high in rapid immunoassays

positives

27

1. cervix moves from posterior to anterior position
2. cervix ripens/softens
3. cervix effaces
4. cervix dilates
5. fetal head prepares for descent: rotates, flexes, molds
6. fetus descends, rotates further, birthed

Six Ways to Progress

28

Fentanyl half-life

3 hours

29

Morphine half-life

2 hours

30

Nubain half-life

2-5 hours