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Flashcards in Ontological Argument Deck (29):
1

Anselms book

Proslogion

2

Why did anselm come up with the Ontological Argument

"Faith seeking understanding" rather than to convert the opinions of atheists
hence why it is written as a prayer not a philosophical thesis

3

Ontological Argument is

A priori
Analytic
Deductive

4

Origins of the Ontological Argument

Psalm 53 says "the fool says in his heart there is no God". Anselm argues this is a logical contradiction. By the fools using the term "God" he has created in his mind a being and therefore has made God a conceivable being. For god to be able to be conceived he must exist. Anselm writes "how was the fool able to say in his heart what he was unable to conceive?"

5

Anselms conclusion quote for the first formulation of the argument

"Without doubt, therefore, there exists in the understand and the reality something than which a greater cannot be thought"

6

Anselms painter quote to support formulation one

"For when a painter thinks ahead to what he will paint, he has that picture in his thought...if it is to exist only in thought then it could be thought to existing in reality as well, which is greater"

7

JL Mackies Argument to support necessary existence

Train engine and carriages

Engine is necessary
Carriages are contingent
Train can exist with engine and without carriages but not without an engine and with carriages

8

Gaunilos letter

On behalf of the fool

9

Gaunilos conclusion quote

"I do not know whom I would regard the greater fool, me for accepting it or him for supposing he had proved the existence of this island

10

Explain Aquinas's Gods existence is not "self evident" argument

Likens it to truth
"Truth does not exist" is nonsensical cuz to accept truth of truth does not exist, then truth must exist. Impossible to think truth doesn't exist
Not impossible to think God doesn't exist as athiests do

11

Quote of aquinass argument that not everyone has the same definition of God

"Perhaps not everyone who he's the name God understands it to signify something than which nothing can be thought"

12

Outline Gaskings criticism

The creation of the world is the most supreme achievement conceivable. The greater the limitation of the creation, the more impressive the achievement. Gasking believed the greatest limitation would be if the creator is on existent. A world created by a non existent creator would be greater than one created by an existent creator. An existent creator is therefore not the greatest conceivable being. Gasking concludes that God does not exist

13

Humes critism of the Ontological Argument

Existence can only ever be contingent. Things that exist have the ability to not exist. "We cannot define something into existence even if it has all he perfections we can think of". No possible to move from de dicto to in re

14

Descartes book

Meditations

15

Descartes was a

Rationalist

16

Another name for Descartes Ontological Argument

Cartesian Ontological Argument

17

What did Descartes believe

All born with innate ideas that are imprinted on our minds from birth, which are universally shared by all of humanity, like Gods existence

18

Descartes argument

God is "a supremely perfect being"
Existence is a perfection
For God to be a supremely perfect being he cannot lack anything. Therefore he must exist because if he didn't then he would lack existence and therefore would not be supremely perfect

19

Descartes conclusion quote

"From the fact that I cannot conceive God without existence, it follows that existence is inseparable from him"

20

Descartes book

Meditations

21

Descartes was a

Rationalist

22

Another name for Descartes Ontological Argument

Cartesian Ontological Argument

23

What did Descartes believe

All born with innate ideas that are imprinted on our minds from birth, which are universally shared by all of humanity, like Gods existence

24

Descartes argument

God is "a supremely perfect being"
Existence is a perfection
For God to be a supremely perfect being he cannot lack anything. Therefore he must exist because if he didn't then he would lack existence and therefore would not be supremely perfect

25

Descartes conclusion quote

"From the fact that I cannot conceive God without existence, it follows that existence is inseparable from him"

26

Descartes triangle quote

"Three angles equal two right angles"

Essence of a triangle

27

Malcolm's Ontological Argument

Premise 1: god is that than which nothing greater can be thought
Premise 2: necessary existence is a perfection
Premise 3: if God possesses all perfections he possesses necessary existence
Premise 4: things that have necessary existence cannot not exist
Conclusion: God must exist

28

Plantinga uses

Model logic

29

Plantingas Ontological Argument

Premise 1: possible world with a being with maximal greatness. Maximal greatness means has the ability to exist in all worlds
Premise 2: maximally great beings have maximal excellence like omnipotence
Premise 3: our world is a possible world
Conclusion: maximally great being exits in our world this person is God