Openstax Ch 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Openstax Ch 7 Deck (28):
1

A cation is a ______ ion

positive

2

An anion is a ______ ion

negative

3

ionic bonds

forces between oppositely charged cations and anions

4

Binary ionic compounds are composed of ______ elements

two

5

metallic elements have _____ ionization energy

low

6

low ionization energy means that atoms will _____ electrons easily

lose

7

nonmetal elements have ____ electron affinities

high

8

nonmetal elements are where on the periodic table?

upper right hand side

9

all substances must be electrically ______.

neutral

10

in a cation, the atom of a main group element loses its valence electrons to become like a _____?

noble gas

11

covalent bonds are when atoms do what?

share electrons equally between themselves

12

covalent bonds are formed when two atoms have similar what?

ionization energies and electron affinities

13

covalent bonds have lower what than ionic compounds?

melting and boiling points

14

bond length

determined by the distance which the lowest potential energy is achieved

15

pure covalent bonds are in what molecules?

diatomic

16

polar covalent bonds are what?

when one atom as a partial positive and another is a partial negative

17

what is an example of a polar covalent bond?

H2O

18

electronegativity

properties of the bonding atoms

19

the more strongly an atom attracts the electrons, the ______ the electronegativity

higher

20

A _____ difference in electronegativity means the atom is more ______

larger ; polarized

21

< 0.4 electronegativity means the bonds are

pure covalent

22

electronegativity between 0.4 (0.5) and 1.8 (2) means the bonds are

polar covalent

23

electronegativity > 1.8 (2) means the bonds are

ionic

24

lewis symbol

element symbol with valence electrons

25

lewis structure

shows bonds between atoms

26

unbonded electrons are called

lone pairs

27

octet rule

each atom follows a noble gas

28

free radicals

odd number of electrons