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Flashcards in Ophthalmic terminology Deck (43)
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Scotoma

Area of partial alteration in field of vision (can be partially diminished or entirely degenerated) which is surrounded by a field of normal or preserved field of vision.

1

Myopia

Short-sightedness

2

Presbyopia

Progressive, gradually diminished ability to focus on nearby objects (age-related failure of accommodation).

Does not affect distance vision and can be corrected with glasses (a convex lens - as opposed to myopia, which requires a concave lens. This is because presbyopia focuses the image behind the retina, as in hypermetropia).

3

Amblyopia

Lazy eye. Decreased vision originating in childhood where pathway from eye to brain does not develop properly. Strabismus is most common cause, but amblyopia can occur without strabismus and vice versa.

4

Strabismus

Squint; heterotropia.
Eyes are not properly aligned with each other. Can lead to amblyopia (lazy eye, loss of vision).

Subclassifications:
Eg. Esotropia: one or both eyes turn inwards.
Eg. Exotropia: one or both eyes turn outwards.

5

Nystagmus

Involuntary, rapid and repetitive eye movements.
Subclassifications of horizontal, vertical, and rotary/circular nystagmus.

6

Exophthalmos

Exophthalmia; proptosis.
Abnormal protrusion of the eyeball.

7

Proptosis.

Exophthalmia; exophthalmos.
Abnormal protrusion of the eyeball.

8

Enophthalmos

Sunken eyeball.
Opposite of exophthalmos/proptosis.

9

Diplopia

Double vision

10

Hyperopia

Far sightedness.
Aka hypermetropia.

11

Endophthalmitis.

Intraocular infection.

12

Phthisis

A progressively wasting or consumptive condition;
Eg. Shrunken, non-functional (blind) eye following intraocular infection and structural disorganisation.

13

Miosis

Pupil contraction

14

Mydriasis

Pupil dilation

15

Hyperaemia

Red eye

16

Trichiasis

Abnormally positioned eyelashes which grow backwards and inwards.

17

Hordeolum

An acute focal infection of the eyelid (external hordeolum = stye; internal hordeolum = acute bacterial meibomian gland infection).

18

Ptosis

Droopy upper eyelid.

When severe, may interfere with vision.
May be unilateral or bilateral, may be asymmetrical.
Recall: levator muscle (CNIII) + sympathetic innervation of smooth muscle component = lifts upper lid; lids are closed by orbicularis oculi (CNVII).
ie. Facial nerve palsy does not cause a ptosis (third nerve palsy may).

19

Entropion

Eyelid turning inwards.

May cause watering, as eyelashes irritate the ocular surface.

20

Ectropion

Eyelid turning outwards.

May cause watering, as ectropion causes impairment of tear collection by eyelid puncta.

21

Chemosis

Swelling or oedema of the conjunctiva.

22

Xerophthalmia

Mucin (tear) deficiency.
A disease of vitamin A deficiency with severe corneal and retinal complications.

23

Epiphora

Inappropriate watering of the eye

24

Leukocoria

White pupil (pupillary reflex).
Danger signal for retinoblastoma in infants. Could also be retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), among other things.

25

Leukocoria

White pupil (pupillary reflex).
Danger signal for retinoblastoma in infants. Could also be retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), among other things.

26

Leukocoria

White pupil (pupillary reflex).
Danger signal for retinoblastoma in infants. Could also be retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), among other things.

27

Chemosis

Conjunctival oedema

28

Keratitis

Corneal inflammation

29

Hypopyon

Collection of pus in the bottom of the anterior chamber of the eye (eg. In anterior uveitis - a subtype which is iritis).