Flashcards in Optho, ENT Deck (77)
what is anisocoria?
what is heterochromia?
different colors in the iris
What is ptosis?
a droopy eyelid
issue when it obstructs the VF
What is the marcus gun jaw-winking phenomenon
intermittent ptosis reduction during mastication/sucking and the levator muscle
**will tilt their head and look under eyelid**
What is a nasolacrimal duct obstruction caused by?
Incomplete canalization of the duct or membranous obstructions
**very common and usually go away in 1st year
What is the presentation of a child with a nasolacrimal duct obstruction?
always has 1 eye draining
self limiting in 1 year
if not needs an optho referral
How do you diagnose a child with nasolacrimal duct obstruction?
fluorescence in the eye
shine black light up nose and the fluroscene will be in the nose!
How do you treat a nasolacrimal duct obstruction?
push a probe down through the punctum which will either dilate it or break through the membanous portion that is blocking it
What is dacrocycitis?
infection of the nasolacrimal sac
How does dacrocycitis present?
erythema, edema over lower eyelid
What is dacrocycitis caused by?
S. aureus, strep pyogenes, strep pneumoniae,
How do you treat dacrocycitis?
What is a hyphema?
Blood in the anterior chamber
immediate referral to optho = emergency!
What is a hyphema caused by?
trauma to the globe
ruptured vessels located near root of iris or anterior chamber
What are som complications of a hyphema?
How do you treat a hyphema?
shield over the eye
refer to optho
What is a iris coloboma?
it is a defect due to incomplete closure of anterior embryonal fissure
What is the presentation of iris coloboma?
key hole shaped pupil
**need to refer to optho
What is aniridia?
has no iris
How does a patient with aniridia present?
can be associated with Wilms tumor or autosomal dominent
What is glaucoma?
edematous and clouding of the cornea
What is glaucoma caused by?
causing optic nerve injury, corneal scarring, amblyopia
congenital or acquired
How does a patient present with glaucoma?
tearing, photophobia, corneal clouding
What is anterioruveitis/ iridocyclitis/ iritis associated with?
inflammatory diseases and needs to be seen by optho
How do patients with anterioruveitis/ iridocyclitis/ iritis present?
Epidemiology of Retinoblastoma
most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood,
child usually presents before the age of 3
Most common presenting sign in a child with previously undiagnosed retinoblastoma?
leukophoria= white reflex or NO red reflex
What is retinoblastoma caused by?
multiple tumors or mass in one or both eyes
What is papilledema?
optic nerve edema