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Flashcards in Optho, ENT Deck (77)
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1

what is anisocoria?

unequal pupils

2

what is heterochromia?

different colors in the iris

3

What is ptosis?

a droopy eyelid
issue when it obstructs the VF

4

What is the marcus gun jaw-winking phenomenon

intermittent ptosis reduction during mastication/sucking and the levator muscle
**will tilt their head and look under eyelid**

5

What is a nasolacrimal duct obstruction caused by?

Incomplete canalization of the duct or membranous obstructions
**very common and usually go away in 1st year

6

What is the presentation of a child with a nasolacrimal duct obstruction?

always has 1 eye draining
self limiting in 1 year
if not needs an optho referral

7

How do you diagnose a child with nasolacrimal duct obstruction?

fluorescence in the eye
shine black light up nose and the fluroscene will be in the nose!

8

How do you treat a nasolacrimal duct obstruction?

push a probe down through the punctum which will either dilate it or break through the membanous portion that is blocking it

9

What is dacrocycitis?

infection of the nasolacrimal sac

10

How does dacrocycitis present?

erythema, edema over lower eyelid

11

What is dacrocycitis caused by?

S. aureus, strep pyogenes, strep pneumoniae,

12

How do you treat dacrocycitis?

Abx

13

What is a hyphema?

Blood in the anterior chamber
immediate referral to optho = emergency!

14

What is a hyphema caused by?

trauma to the globe
ruptured vessels located near root of iris or anterior chamber

15

What are som complications of a hyphema?

increase IOP
glaucoma
vision loss

16

How do you treat a hyphema?

shield over the eye
elevate head
refer to optho

17

What is a iris coloboma?

it is a defect due to incomplete closure of anterior embryonal fissure

18

What is the presentation of iris coloboma?

key hole shaped pupil
**need to refer to optho

19

What is aniridia?

has no iris

20

How does a patient with aniridia present?

usually bilateral
can be associated with Wilms tumor or autosomal dominent

21

What is glaucoma?

edematous and clouding of the cornea

22

What is glaucoma caused by?

increased IOP
causing optic nerve injury, corneal scarring, amblyopia
congenital or acquired

23

How does a patient present with glaucoma?

tearing, photophobia, corneal clouding

24

What is anterioruveitis/ iridocyclitis/ iritis associated with?

inflammatory diseases and needs to be seen by optho

25

How do patients with anterioruveitis/ iridocyclitis/ iritis present?

injection
photophobia
pain
blurred vision
iritis

26

Epidemiology of Retinoblastoma

most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood,
child usually presents before the age of 3

27

Most common presenting sign in a child with previously undiagnosed retinoblastoma?

leukophoria= white reflex or NO red reflex

28

What is retinoblastoma caused by?

genetics
multiple tumors or mass in one or both eyes
optho referral!

29

What is papilledema?

optic nerve edema

30

What is papilledema caused by?

increased IOP due to tumor, infection