Flashcards in Oral Cavity and Pharynx Deck (43):
________ ______ can be found in 1% of the population, often in people who grind their teeth. They make it hard to fit dentures.
Abscesses on the root of a tooth in the anterior mandible can be accessed in the _______ space, whereas root abscesses in posterior molars may invade the ________ space.
sublingual (anterior teeth) - above the mylohyoid line
submaxillary (posterior teeth) - below the mylohyoid line
Alveolar nerves and blood vessels access the pulp of the teeth through the ______ ______.
What is the majority of the teeth made of?
Between which two structures are the palatine tonsils found?
Between the palatoglossal arch anteriorly and the palatopharyngeal arch posteriorly
Name the three major tonsils.
Is there usually a lot of space between the tongue and palate?
Pharyngeal tonsils are also called _______ if they are near the eustachian tube, and ______ if they are enlarged.
called tubal if near the eustachain tube
called adenoid if enlarged
Why is surgical removal of the tonsils dangerous?
There is an ish-ton of blood supply.
Are there a ton of minor salivary glands on the palate?
How many muscles make up the soft palate?
Name the muscles of the soft palate.
1. Tensor veli palatini
2. Levator veli palatini
What is the innervation to the soft palate muscles?
CN X (vagus) except for the TENSOR VELI PALATINI (V3)
What does the palatoglossus muscle do?
1. Elevates tongue and pulls down soft palate and uvula - sealing off the oropharynx.
2. Helps you make "K" sounds (velar consonants).
3. Isolate vestibule saliva.
4. Assists in swallowing.
What does the uvula muscle do?
1. Helps with uvular consonants
2. Seals nasopharynx during swallowing.
What might a shortened or bidid uvula cause?
Middle ear infections due to nasal regurgitation.
Which soft palate muscle originates on the temporal bone and wraps around the pterygoid hamulus to act to flatten the palate? Which nerve innervates this muscle?
Tensor veli palatini - innervated by V3
Where does the levator veli palatini muscle originate? What is its action and innervation?
Originates in the scaphoid fossae of the temporal bone near the eustachian tube opening. Innervated by CN X (vagus), acts to elevate the palate.
Divers will swallow during their descents to equilibrate pressure in their ear. Which muscle is responsible for this opening of the eustachian tube?
The tensor veli palatini
Which cranial nerve sends sensory fibers to the palate? What are the exact names of these nerves?
V2 branches descend the palatine canal to the palate: lesser palatine nerve (posterior palate), greater palatine nerve (middle 4/5 of the palate)
The nasopalatine nerve (also V2) comes out the incisive foramen to provide sensory innervation to the anterior hard palate.
Describe the physical pathway of the nerves that provide sensory innervation to the palate.
V2 --> through foramen rotundum --> pterygopalatine fossa where the pterygopalatine ganglion is. From here...
The greater and lesser palatine nerves go through the descending palatine canal from here --> palate
The nasopalatine nerve goes through the sphenopalatine foramen --> nose --> incisive canal --> anterior palate.
What are oral vestibules? What nerves provide sensation to them?
Vestibules are the spaces between the teeth and lips. Superior (V2) and inferior (V3) alveolar nerves and the buccal nerve (V3) provides sensation to these.
Name the three extrinsic tongue muscles that have bony attachments. What is their innervation?
All are innervated by CN XII
Are there a lot of intrinsic tongue muscles?
After the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) exits the hypoglossal canal, it passes superior to this artery as it makes a sharp bend anteriorly to reach the tongue muscles.
The occipital artery
How can you clinically test for CN XII damage?
Have the patient stick their tongue out. This involves contraction of the genioglossus
Do the lingual and hypoglossal nerves pass deep, or superficial to the hyoglossus?
What provides sensory and taste innervation to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue? What about the anterior 2/3? What does motor innervation?
Posterior 1/3 - glossopharyngeal (CN IX) does both
Anterior 2/3 - chorda tympani (CN VII parasympathetic) does taste and lingual nerve (V3) does somatic sensory
Motor is done by hypoglossal (the whole thing!)
The most numerous structure on the surface of the tongue is the _______, which have no taste buds but instead help move food around.
Are taste receptors also present in the gut and respiratory tract?
Are taste receptors for the different tastes mixed all around on the tongue surface?
What is the main artery that supplies the tongue? What is it a branch of?
Lingual artery, from the ECA
What are the minor salivary glands called within the anterior tongue?
Anterior lingual salivary glands
The sublingual caruncle is the oral opening for the ________ duct.
Do some of the secretions from the sublingual gland get into the mouth via the submandibular gland duct?
Name the three pharynges from superior to inferior.
Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
What structures mark the superior and inferior borders of the nasopharynx? What structures are contained within the nasopharynx?
Borders: choanae (superior) and inferior margin of the soft palate.
Stuff within it: pharyngeal tonsils, torus tubarius and cartilaginous opening to the eustachian tube, saplingopharyngeus muscle, part of the superior constrictor.
What structures mark the superior and inferior borders of the oropharynx? Which tonsils are and muscles are contained in the oropharynx?
Borders: bottom of the soft palate (superior) and top of the epiglottis (inferior).
Stuff in it: palatine tonsils, palatopharyngeus m, stylopharyngeus m, part of the superior constrictor and part of the middle constrictor.
What structures mark the superior and inferior borders of the laryngopharynx? Which constrictors are part of the laryngopharynx?
Upper border is the epiglottis, lower is the cricoid cartilage.
Middle and inferior pharyngeal constrictors.
On what bony prominence does the pharyngeal raphe insert?
The pharyngeal tubercle.
All circular pharyngeal constrictors cone together to form the pharyngeal raphe, which inserts at the base of the skull on the _______ _______. What is the origin of each of the pharyngeal constrictors?
the raphe inserts on the pharyngeal tubercle.
Superior pharyngeal constrictor - pterygomandibular raphe
Middle pharyngeal constrictor - greater horn of the hyoid bone
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor - oblique line (on the thyroid cartilage)
Name the three inner longitudinal pharyngeal muscles. What is their action?
Salpingopharyngeus, palatopharyngeus, stylopharyngeus.
They act to shorten/elevate and widen the pharynx during swallowing.